Thursday, August 22, 2019

Major Organizational institutions Essay Example for Free

Major Organizational institutions Essay The major international organizations were all formed under one consensus developed by various countries. Each organization was created to fit a specific purpose, but they all follow a unique passion towards socio-economic stability on a global front, better governance, financial transparency, and respect for human rights (Karns, 2004). The organizations discussed in this paper are as follows: 1. International Monetary Fund 2. World Trade Organization 3. United Nations 4. Interpol 5. European Union The International Monetary Fund was created in 1944 with the sole objective of stabilizing exchange rates and the international monetary system. It consists of approximately 185 member countries. The structural hierarchy is topped by a managing director who is selected by executive directors representing various countries. The World Trade Organization was created in 1995 with the objective of liberalization international trade with checks and balances. Consisting of 153 members that constitute 95% of the total world trade, it is governed by a Ministerial Conference, which meets every two years and also appoints the head, the Director General. The WTO is further divided into the General council which deals with day to day affairs and policy decisions. The United Nations was first accepted by the world community through ratification in 1945. Comprising of 6 units ; The General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat and the International Court of Justice, the UN’s main aim is to facilitate co-operation in the fields of international justice, international law, international security, global economic development, the reduction of poverty and in the end, sustaining world peace. Interpol was created to develop international police co-operation between various countries. The organization is headed by a Secretary General and is governed by the Interpol General Assembly. Its underlying principle relies on the fact that Interpol facilitates information between member countries regarding drug trafficking, organized crime, weapon smuggling and so forth. Interpol cannot get political and thus remains a neutral organization. Its constitution forbids it to act between issues overlapping two member states regarding military, political or religious issues. The European Union constitutes 3 organizations. These include; European Economic Community, European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community. The European Union is composed of various states from Europe, thus making it a regional yet international organization. The European Union acts as one country with one currency (with the exception of United Kingdom) and a single trade policy (McCormick, 2005). In terms of economic development, the united nations development program deals entirely with facilitating resources to poorer countries and helping them develop on the agenda that the current first world nations used. The UNDP provides economic assistance, a variety of policy adjustments and macroeconomic stability programs to impoverished nations requiring aid. The International monetary fund further helps poor countries recover from fiscal debt that Governments accumulate. This helps Governments mitigate their financial and economic needs on a short term immediate basis. Countries suffering from bankruptcy often avail the IMF last fund sponsor program which allows them to borrow from the IMF. The IMF then acts as the lender to the country in need, state bank. The World Trade Organization was one of the first international organizations to spread the globalization bubble. Its view was to see the whole world as one single market and thus eliminate all barriers to trade. The reason being value of competition, low production costs and specialization in country specific production processes to increase quality of goods produced for everyone. The World Trade Organization promotes free and unrestricted trade by doing away with protectionist policies. This means that the WTO and its member countries trade freely with each other without quotas and restrictions. However, unfortunately that has not always been the case in the world market, as many developing countries seek to protect their infant industries. However, with time, the WTO has introduced a set of new policies which force member countries to be receptive to foreign competition in the hope of creating a more effective and efficient way of production that benefits all of mankind. The WTO functions under the ideology of capitalism hoping that with increased open trade, wealth will be created which will trickle down to the masses (Bossche, 2008). Terrorism, war crimes and international order has become a major issue in the rapidly changing world scenario. With continuous major war being fought in various parts of the world during the past 9 years, various new global organizations have come about to ensure the stability of peace. The United Nations, since 1945 has played an active role in these scenarios through one of its organs; the United Nations Security Council. Representing 5 major powers, Russia, United States, China, France and United Kingdom, the UN Security Council tackles global terrorism through sanctions and banning groups forcing member nations to act upon the rebel groups creating problems. Sanctions are slapped against nations abusing their force or subduing other nations in their thirst for power. To ensure neutrality and consensus, all 5 members on the council have the right to veto any resolution passed in the Security Council. This task is further augmented by Interpol which provides co-ordination between the different police forces of the member states. Interpol often issues international warrants for terrorist wanted by different states residing in other states. This allows for a more coordinated effort towards sustaining international order and keeping track of problems facing different nations such as arms smuggling, drug smuggling and human trafficking (Dana, 2000). The United Nations also has an International Court of Justice where various ousted political leaders are tried fairly for the crimes they committed against humanity, their people and other sovereign states. This court of justice ensures that war crimes do not go unpunished and are globally recognized by all member states (Roberts, 1994). One of the main organizations that undertake in capital investment is the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. The OECD brings together various governments in order to provide sustainable development plans that various countries can use to break free from their economic turmoil. It also ensures the steady and sustainable flow of Human Capital Investment throughout the world. Raising living standards, maintaining financial stability and assisting other world economies through contributing in terms of intellect and physical economic strength is also part of the OECD mission. The future prospects for International Organizations are quite diverse when we observe the trends various organizations have seen over the past few years. With the dramatically changed global environment and thought process, a lot of organizations built on previous assumptions require change if they are to have any future prospects at all. The sudden shift to environmental change and the necessity to preserve our planet has put the focus of many governments, NGO’s and the majority of the population on Earth to shift their attention towards organizations that currently cater to this mind set. Environment change is being view increasingly as a step towards destruction man takes every day. When we talk about governance by such organizations, the prospects look constructive. Most people are turning towards such organizations because it caters to their â€Å"living green† ideology. This ideology is now engulfing our everyday life in the form of new foreign policies, industrial growth and development, and everyday management affairs ranging from the construction of roads to the syllabi of educational institutes. Day by day, companies adopt eco-friendly governance policies because that is what the people want and respect (Karns, 2004). Secondly, we have seen the failure of the United Nations once again. The International Court of Justice at max provides advice, the Security Council is tainted with bias behavior from certain states towards their allies and the resolutions tabled are often rejected on the basis of the veto vote. It is, without a doubt, an emerging thought, that governance by such organizations that police some and free others do not work. Thus, to think that such organizations can bring about global governance is mistaken. People have lost faith in such organizations and more people are doing so day by day. Finally, international monetary institutions and development support agencies are being shunned by developing countries to an alarming success. The false paradigm theory has broken away the countries that were once colonized. They now feel that imperial colonialism has now over-ridden their way of life and these international bodies promote it. Also, the fact that the policies and governance techniques these organizations offer are barely equip to deal with the problems threatening the developing nations of today. They might be well intended but fail to address the ailments of development countries. IMF policies and World Bank regulations are seen more as restrictions rather than good governance techniques to bring economies out of debt. Thus, their policies are often ignored. To presume that good governance can be bought through such international organizations only highlights the weak prospects that such organizations have in global governance when it comes to economic stability. References: Bossche, P. V. D. (2008). The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization. Cambridge University Press. Dana, D. (2000). Conflict Resolution. McGraw-Hill. Diehl, P. (2005). The Politics of Global Governance: International Organizations in an Interdependent World. Lynne Rienner Publishers Karns, M. P. (2004). International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. Lynne Rienner Publishers McCormick, J. (2005). Understanding the European Union: A Concise Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. Roberts, A. (1994). United Nations Divided World: the UNs Roles in International Relations. Oxford University Press.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Cause and Effect Essay Example for Free

Cause and Effect Essay The dedication and self-motivation required to balancing schoolwork and practice is the most difficult part of being a student-athlete. I find that being a student-athlete plays out to be much harder than most people think. It’s very difficult especially at the beginning of the year, when it finally hits you that you’re growing up and finally have to do your own laundry. You’re not only getting your-self situated as far as classes go, but also meeting new people. You have to balance all the new tasks in your life as well as starting new relationships. One obvious cause of wanting to become a student-athlete is the persona. Everyone wants to be the star athlete and everyone wants to be the cool kid on the sports team that gets all the chicks. This is something that we were raised around, all the professional athletes getting praised as kings while walking around with a supermodel around their arm. I mean who wouldn’t want that kind of life? Being a student-athlete is something that you can take pride in. You want to take pride in yourself by representing your team in athletics but also want to further your education by acquiring a degree witch causes you to be a student athlete. It also makes you stand out among the rest because not only are you a full time student but also a full time athlete. Which gives you life skills like motivation and determination that you take with you through out life. Above all it gives your parents something to brag about to their siblings because their twenty three year old son is still living in their house, while flipping burgers down the street. The major cause of being a student-athlete is that you want to have friends. Sure being a student-athlete teaches you how to balance a crazy life style and creates better time management but it also allows you to create great friendships. With schoolwork and practice you usually don’t have socializing time but you will always have your teammates. Knowing this could cause you to become a student-athlete. The cause of student-athletes is when a person wants to thrive to better them self, they want to push themselves to new heights, they want an edge on their competition, want to hopefully find new friendships and in some cases they just want the praise of being a student-athlete. It takes a special person to want to be a student athlete for the right causes, and might need to be revaluated if all you want is the praise of being a student-athlete. A plus is that most of the student-athletes either quickly realize its not for them because their grades become less of an importance and cheerleaders along with a thirty rack becomes a priority, or they end up seeing the importance of education and find themselves succeeding in life. The first effect of a student-athlete is that you will develop physical abilities. Your body will be in better shape, and you’ll be able to achieve things that physically you couldn’t accomplish before. You will push your self to levels you didn’t think wherever possible to reach. You my not have your photo in all the papers and the model on your arm is more likely to be a cute hometown girl that you met at a party, but you have still accomplished more than you would have if you where a normal college student that sits in front on his video games all day, only leaving the room to buy more chips because he destroyed his last bag of Doritos. The second effect has to do with your personal life. Practicing a sport requires some time, plus schoolwork and everything else going in your life you usually don’t have time to lie around and be lazy. Which teaches you not only to have an amazing work ethic but also how to manage the time that you have. It also keeps you busy enough to stay out of trouble, most of the time. When you are playing for a team the name on the front means a hell of a lot more important than the name on the back. When you go some place to play your not representing your self, you’re representing your team and your university. There is only a fortunate bunch of people that get to put on a uniform to represent something bigger than them, so as a student-athlete you take pride in what you do, and you take advantage in representing your school every time you touch the field. The most important effect of being a student athlete is your teammates and your everlasting friendships. You will meet a lot of people being a student-athlete but only a small group of individuals will become your friends to the point you can call them your second family. That is the meaning of a team. As an athlete you will develop a strong character and a competitive spirit. You’ll become more disciplined and responsible, which will certainly help you in your professional life. Above all you develop relationships that can be unbreakable. You go through hell with each other, or as some people like to call it conditioning. You step on the field and go to battle with one another trusting that the other guys in the game will give as much effort if not more to win. You’ll get on each other’s nervous and sometimes get into fights, but no matter what at the end of the day you’ll always have your second family. The effect of being a student-athlete shapes your body, your life, and your mind in good ways. Practicing a sport, going to classes, doing homework and trying to balance a social life keeps you entertained and far away from boredom. In addition you will have the chance to experience the amazing feeling of success after all the hard work you put in to being a student-athlete. It’s worth all the early morning practices, and tough love conditioning to be able to see defeat in your opponents face. It’s worth all the seven o’clock classes, and professors’ monotone lectures to be able to see the overwhelming sense of joy on your mothers face as you receive you diploma. It’s worth the long bus rides, and all the tough losses to be able to have a group of guys you can call you’re family. Even though its hard work being a student-athlete is a great experience that will stay with you forever.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Importance Of Translating Messages

The Importance Of Translating Messages One of the main concerns of translation studies is the problem of accuracy: how much freedom the translator is allowed when interpreting a text from one language into another; whether he/she has to concentrate on the content or on the atmosphere of the piece of literature. In this paper, by comparing and contrasting the theory of Noam Chomsky (as presented in Syntactic Structures, 1957) and the one emerging from it by Eugene A. Nida (in Toward a Science of Translating, 1964), the core message of a text will be proven to be one the most important features. First of all, according to Edwin Gentzler (1993), despite the fact that Chomskys work was not specifically meant to be a part of translation studies, Nida adopted several aspects of it into his own, as, in the words of Gentzler (1993), Chomsky was literally a Godsend for Nida (p. 46) literally, because the main field of Nidas research involved the translation of the Bible. To get a clearer impression about their theories, it is essential to become familiar with them. As Gentzler (1993) points out, Noam Chomsky was more interested in the rules and structures of grammar than deep structures. His theory involves three levels of conceptualization: (1) a base component made up of phrase structure rules that generate (2) a deep structure, which in turn is changed, via transformational rules into (3) a surface structure (Gentzler, 1993: 46). This concept was significantly altered in Nidas adaptation. As Snell-Hornby (1988) describes him, in the United States the most influential scholar was undoubtedly Eugene A. Nida (p. 14) who was originally engaged in the invention of a methodology for Bible translations in order to help missionaries deliver the core message of the book. According to Gentzler (1993), he was appalled by nineteenth-century tendencies of preferring literal translation to the meaning. As cited in Gentzler (1993), he claimed that the words [of the American Standard Version of the Bible] may be English, but the grammar is not; and the sense is quite lacking (p. 45). To solve the problem, he took Chomskys theory and, to make it fit into his own invention, simplified it by omitting the first component. In this way, he created a system from generative grammar exclusively for translation practice, and it became quite popular. As Gentzler (1993) points out, both Chomskys and Nidas model agree on a deep, coherent, and unified entity which is the same in every language, and only changes in the surface structure, i.e. when presented in different languages (p. 46). However, the two theories take disparate ways in analysing the core: Chomsky is more concerned about universal rules of grammar and universal lexical forms, whereas Nida tends to discover an original divine message (Gentzler, 1993: 47). Despite the religious undertone, Nidas viewpoint seems more relevant for translation studies than Chomskys: it is the exact interpretation of the message that should be considered as priority, not the pursuit of creating sentences in the target language grammatically as close as possible to the ones in the original text but then again, Chomskys model has not been developed for the field Nida uses it. Actually, as mentioned by Gentzler (1993), Nida ventures further into the matter, and states that the core message is so important that it must be delivered in any case even by sacrificing the original sentences to bend them to the needs of the cultural peculiarities of the target language. For instance, he translates the phrase Lamb of God as Seal of God for Eskimo language, since for the Eskimos, the seal is the animal equivalent of the lamb in regards of sacrifice (Snell-Hornby, 1988: 19). It is one of his techniques of adjustment (Chesterman, 2005: 20). For him, it is not the sign that matters, but the response to the sign (Gentzler, 1993: 53), because as long as it makes people behave the way God wants them to, his interpretation is correct, regardless the changes in the text. He calls this kind of translation faithful, which is somewhat ironical, since the word has traditionally [] been reserved for literal translations (Gentzler, 1993: 58). However, since he privileges the me aning above the form, it fits into his theory quite well. Gentzler (1993) mentions another difference between Chomskys and Nidas model: the methodology. Although Chomsky agrees with the crucial role of the core or deep structure, it is antithetic to his views to execute such practices that Nida does who demolishes the sentences into deep structure, carries it into the target language, and then finally, uses it to rebuild the sentences in the target language. It is true that in regards of the method described above, Nida clearly diverges from Chomsky, but translation-wise, it seems rather efficient (like the example with the Eskimos). There is one aspect in which Gentzler (1993) clearly disagrees with Nida: he claims that Nidas advices for translators to agree with or even admire the original author of the text is a considerably dangerous one, because they could fall prey to the so-called intentional fallacy (p. 57). Unfortunately, his fears seem valid: however beneficiary it is to understand the tiniest subtleties of the writer as a translator, one should rather not let his/her very self and opinions flow excessively into the work of another person, since he/she is only a chain which connects the original text and the translation. Too much self-identification may result in the alteration of the core message. In conclusion, it can be clearly seen that, according to the theory of Eugene A. Nida, in order to present a text to a language whose speakers live in a completely different culture than the speakers of the source language, a translator is permitted to take liberations when interpreting the sentences. Naturally, the occasions at which the cultural gap between the nations is so vast that between English and Eskimo occur quite rarely, but the subtleties are always present when a text is translated from one language to another and even one mistranslated word can cause tragedies. References: Chesterman, A. (2005). Problems With Strategies. In K. Kà ¡roly à . Fà ³ris (Eds.), New Trends in Translation Studies (pp. 17-28). Budapest: Akadà ©miai Kiadà ³. Gentzler, E. (1993). Contemporary Translation Theories. London: Routledge. Shell-Hornby, M. (1988). Translation Studies: An Integrated Approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Creation Stories Essay -- Creation Beginning Life Religion Essays

Creation Stories   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Where do we come from? The creation of the world has for centuries been told through many different stories, in different languages, and from a variety of religions across the world. The founders of each religion developed every creation story, and as religions vary greatly in beliefs, so do their stories of how the world and mankind were created. Although many of these creation stories differ, they have a close mystical and spiritual bind that brings people together. Two particular creation stories from very diverse religions are that of the Native Americans and the Christians. Unlike Christians who worship one god, Native Americans worship two high gods as well as a variety of natural and supernatural forces. Although both stories may differ from one another in determining their belief of creation, they both are similar in which both religions believe that through ceremonies and worship that they will be at harmony with god. Through their creation stories we can interperate their understanding of the world around them, how they view life, and how they are compatible and incompatible with one another.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Native Americans believe that all things of nature have a spiritual value in life, they use animals, insects, plants, and other forms of nature to symbolize spirits in their stories. Native Americans have a variety of creation stories in which different tribes depict how they believe the world and evolution came to be. The Osage tribe has a creation story in which the world is emerged out of chaos; the Seneca tribe has a creation story in which the world came together through a clash of good and evil. The creation story that is found in many tribes is that of ?Inktomi?, also known as ? spider woman? whom they believe created earth and life. They believe that spider woman spun a line to form the east, west, north, and south, from which came the Four Corners of the earth. Those who had forgotten the gift of her thread would drown in the great flood she sent, but for those who remembered they floated to the New World and climbed unto the safety of mother earth. The N ative American creation story reveals that they understand the world to be a place of equality. In the following passage the creation of man is depicted from the use of different clays: ? Spider woman used the clay of the earth, red, yellow, white, and black, to c... ... But for some Native Americans they believe that when they die their soul takes form as a part of nature, whether a bird, tree, or wolf, and like their ancestors they will provide as a guardian for their people after them.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After learning of the varying stories that the Native American and Christian religions depict of creation, I have come to the conclusion that they all have a similarity with one another despite their other differences. They both have the belief that a higher force, for the Native Americans it was the Spider Woman and for the Christians it was God, created the earth and humanity. For religions such as these the scientific explanation of creation holds no importance in their lives, because their faith and teachings of their creation story justifies their belief. Across the world the cultures, languages, and beliefs that separate people from one another are erased when it comes down to the story of our beginning, our creation story. Like seen in the compatibalities of the Christians and Native Americans their creation stories have for centuries interpreted their understanding of the world around them, spiritually binding people from all religions together.

Monday, August 19, 2019

The Controversy of Deforestation Essay -- Deforestation Essays

The affect of environmental issues occur everyday and in particular deforestation is becoming a highly ranked subject. From animals to the human race, the alacrity of trees that are cut down affects every individual in a variety of ways. Not only do people need to help the planet but they need to help themselves and further generations to come, such as children and grandchildren because these natural resources that are being taken away from society are as well shaping the future. For comprehensible reasons, forests use to make up the world, until man made creatures started to destroy and destruct the most important supply to human kind which are trees. Trees are crucial to every living entity for the reason of providing oxygen to all. The world’s current problem which is deforestation can be solved by giving more knowledge about the cause, creating a luxury tax on meat products, and pin-pointing the major places that are being affected. Deforestation is a disturbance taking place causing the loss of environmental species or animals, natural herbs, and basic nourishment's. This cogent problem of deforestation has become a major problem because now more trees are being cut down and aren’t being replanted, leaving animals without a home to go back to. The animals that are being consumed are being reproduced and need more land area to graze around on, so more space is used while not considering the loss of other species. Environmental animals in the forests are becoming extinct and if they disappear from the earth than people will never know the usefulness or capability of each creature. For example, animals are useful in ways of protecting the family or even for hard labor work such as plowing and human companionship. Nat... ...ent Facts, Environment Science, Global Warming, Natural NorhtDisasters, Ecosystems, Green Living - National Geographic. Web. 03 Dec. 2010. Northhttp://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation-Northoverview.html. â€Å"Deforestation.† University of Michigan. Web. 04 Dec. 2010. Northhttp://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/deforestation.htm. "TreeHelp.com: Trees: Insects." Treehelp.com - Tree Care Made Easy. Web. 04 Dec. 2010. northhttp://www.treehelp.com/trees/trees-insects.asp. Brown, Katrina and David W. Pearce. â€Å"The Causes of Tropical Deforestation†. Vancouver: UCB Press, 1994. http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Effect-of-Deforestation&id=510236. 10 September 2010 Stock , Jocelyn. â€Å"The Choice: Doomsday or Arbor Day.† Deforestation. N.d. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/deforestation.htm . 10 September 2010.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Revengeful Justice in William Shakespeares Hamlet :: William Shakespeare Hamlet Revenge Essays

Revengeful Justice in William Shakespeare's Hamlet   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hamlet's motives rally between those of both revenge and justice, and it becomes this internal conflict which sets the pace of events throughout Shakespeare's entire play. Revenge serves Hamlet as his initial goal in the pursuit for vindication of his father's death. Soliloquy later reveals Hamlet's torn sensibility and care for justice, which decelerates his ability to proceed in action against Claudius. Not until Hamlet confronts his own procrastination, does the inaction cease. Hamlet defeats his inner struggle by melding opposing forces and internally justifying revenge.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hamlet does not initially have a strong enough will to act solely on revenge. Even though Hamlet had proclaimed that he would be "swift" and "sweep to my revenge,"In the "rogue and peasant slave" soliloquy, Hamlet admits that he has been "unpregnant of my cause" and wonders whether he is a "coward". Not until Hamlet becomes completely fed up with his own inaction, does he finally examine the guilt of Claudius. However this task is thwarted when Hamlet witnesses Claudius praying. His will is rationalized by the notion that Claudius' soul might escape eternal damnation. Hamlet finally address his "dull revenge" in his climactic soliloquy admitting," I do not know/ Why yet I live to say This thing's to do/ Sith I have cause and will and strength and means/ To do't" Here Hamlet finally swears against his previous inaction "O! From this time forth,/ My thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth"   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hamlet's overly intellectual mind inhibits him from taking decisive action and he concedes this in two very important soliloquies . First in the "To be or not to be" soliloquy, Hamlet concludes, "Thus conscience does make cowards of us all/ And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied over with the pale cast of thought" While being exiled to England, hamlet thinks his procrastination is a result of " some craven scruple/ Of thinking too precisely on the event" His insightful mind examines his problems to such an extent that it creates dilemmas rather than solving them.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Black Culture and Black Consciousness in Transition Essay

Negative Construction French Marxist thinker, Louis Althusser, established a crucial theory which illuminates how and why ‘myths’ and ‘ideologies’ are constructed throughout time and history. In his celebrated essay, â€Å"Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,† Althusser makes a convincing argument in concerns with ‘ideology’ and its influence on individuals or ‘subject’ which are created through specialized institutions (i.e. religious, educational, political, and family, trade union, communication, et al.). Althusser aptly declares that, â€Å"Ideology is a ‘representation’ of the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence† (Althusser, 1994). In addition, Althusser wants to clarify the significance of ideologies imposed on individuals: â€Å"Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud†¦There is a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations† (1496, 1499). Now take Althusserian’s notion on the construction of ‘ideology’ and apply it to the myth of the ‘American dream.’ Within the socio-historical context of the American dream, the idea that people can start with little more than determination and cunning and leave a legacy of wealth and accomplishment is perhaps the most persistent hope for Americans. As an ideology constructed over history, the subjective/cultural/social construct of the ‘American dream’ shapes how many Americans see their successes or failures and, equally significant, demonstrates the many contours of U.S. society. For African-Americans (including women and ethnic groups), however, were not fully ‘assimilated’ into every aspect of American society, especially since the American dream ideology specifically referred or geared towards ‘white males,’ for several reasons. If we look at American history, blacks (like women and other minorities) had dreams of obtaining equal rights and independence that was privileged to the ‘common man.’ The slaves were constantly being told to postpone or wait-for their freedom would come. Even the declaration of independence states â€Å"all men are created equal†¦endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights†¦among those life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness,† but the slaves of this time were disappointed because this defining of ‘all men’ excluded blacks. In fact, it excluded pretty much everyone, except white men with land. In this postponing of freedom, slavery, discrimination, racism, Jim Crow laws, sharecropping, riots and so on. Thus the ‘American dream,’ to quote from Langston Hughes, has been deferred. â€Å"Deferred† because blacks had to wait, delegate to others who could promote change. Since most minorities were not fully integrated into American life, some managed to ‘successfully’ pass by within the rigid structure of society. Case in point, Macon Dead and rapper Shawn Carter (aka Jay-Z) should be interpreted as accultrationist rather than assimilationist with respect to the American dream for several reasons. First and foremost, the term acculturation carries three definitions: it is seen as the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure, all the knowledge and values shared by a society and, lastly, the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture. Ultimately, acculturation is the obtainment of â€Å"culture† by an individual or a group of people. The latter two definitions, however, provide greater insight into Macon Dead’s characteristic as an acculturationist. Living in an unjust capitalist system, resides in an era where most Americans failed to acknowledge the presence of blacks (and other minorities) by deliberately and blatantly pass frivolous laws and regulations. Macon Dead, as a patriarch/hard-nosed businessman, is defined as an individual of substance who has acquired property in which he rents to black underclass tenants. Consequently Macon Dead is described in the context of trying to emulate and ‘adopt’ similar behavior patterns from ‘white’ society considering America excluded blacks (and other minorities) in every conceivable way (i.e. socially, politically, cultural, etc). For instance, Morrison carefully describes Macon’s appreciation for materialistic possessions in another scene when the rest of his family takes an excursion on Not Doctor Street: â€Å"These rides that the family took on Sunday afternoons had become rituals and much too important for Macon to enjoy. For him it was a way to satisfy himself that he was indeed a successful man†¦Macon Dead’s Packard rolled slowly down Not Doctor Street, through the rough part of town (later known as the Blood Bank because blood flowed so freely there), over the bypass downtown, and headed for the wealthy white neighborhoods. Some of the black people who saw the car passing by sighed with good-humored envy at the classiness, the dignity of it† (Morrison, 32). This scene illustrates Macon’s ability to purchase a wealthy vehicle (i.e. Packard) which functions as a means of communicating, ‘achievement’ and ‘opulence’ to the public. Therefore in order to achieve this myth/ideology/concept of the ‘American dream,’ Macon Dead truly has to abandon himself and, equally significant, his ‘true’ identity by emulating the hated white people of America around that time. Macon Dead is less sympathetic to his own culture by taking a ‘white man’s role’ (i.e. dominant culture) as a cutthroat businessman which also solidifies his reputation as an ‘outsider’ within the black community. In the contemporary context, Jay-Z is the postmodern version of what constitutes an acculturationist by virtue of the hip-hop aesthetics (whereas John Coltrane, Miles Davis or any black jazz musician can be defined as the modernist version of accultrationist). William Eric Perkins, author of ‘the rap attack,’ details the influence of hip-hop culture and its signification towards inner-city teens and America (in particular, African-American and Latino kids): â€Å"Rap music and hip hop culture’s ongoing bewildering love/hate relationship with American society requires a fresh evaluation of the role street culture plays in the continuing evolution of American popular culture† (Perkins, 1). As Jay-Z was raised from the underprivileged neighborhoods of Brooklyn, especially at a time where hip-hop (as an urban phenomenon) reached its second wave of talented MC’s from the inner-city neighborhoods of South Bronx, Harlem, and throughout NYC (with the likes of LL Cool J, Kool Moe Doe, Big Daddy Kane, Eric B and Rakim, KRS-One, A Tribe Called Quest, De La Soul, Ultramagnetic MC’s, to name a few), Jay-Z understood the integral relationship between hip-hop and street life by ‘adopting’ certain ‘behavior patterns’ within the musical genre.