Friday, May 31, 2019
Slavery was abolished after the Civil War, but the Negro race tranquillize was non accepted as equals into American society. To attain a better understanding of the events and struggles faced during this period, one must take a look at its literature. crowd Weldon Johnson does an excellent job of vividly depicting an accurate portrait of the adversities faced before the Civil Rights Movement by the black community in his fabrication The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. One does not only read this book, but instead one takes a journey alongside a burdened mulatto man as he struggles to claim one race as his own.In Johnsons novel, the young mulatto boy is at first completely unaware of his unique circumstance, and lives life considerably and oblivious to the oppression of the black race outside of his home in Connecticut. He is characterized as a bright, quick learning young man whose talents do not cease at intelligence he is somewhat of a musical prodigy. The young boys fing ers could sweep across the ivory keys of a piano to piss the most beautifully captivating and enchanting sounds. At school he interacted well with his classmates, but was always somewhat of a loner. As his education continues, he begins to become somewhat fascinated with a negro boy, whom he calls Shiny, and begins to describe him in great detail. Shiny was smart, driven, and a quick learner, and the narrator later realizes that he was never given the credit he deserved because of his race. In an essence, Shiny and the narrator are no different from one another, other than what the narrator believes to be their ethnicity. At the age of eleven, the narrator learns of a secret that will forever follow him and essentially be the base of every decision he would e... ...ion hardened on the black man in America, but society also made him the punchline a joke. He was in a sense a victim of societys cruel joke, for even though he passed and lived as a white man, he felt constant guilt f or hiding who he really was to turning away the fate he was born into. He chose to live his life with no definite racial identity. Johnson chose to only let the reader known the narrator as the Ex-Colored Man, and he could not have chose a more fitting name concerning racial identity. In an essence, the man was like a Van Gogh or Di Vinci painting after being restored the original color is still underneath the outer coating. No matter how one tries to hide it, the original product is still there.Works CitedJohnson, James Weldon. The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. Boston Sherman, French & Company, 1912. Reissued by Dover Publications, 1995.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Why Launch An Advertising CampaignTo start off, when your company is just becoming established in the Britishmarket, consumers will have no knowledge of your product, we must encourage orpersuade the consumer to buy your product. To make customers aw are of theproduct we must advertise. Large exfoliation ad mainly consists of ad on TV, Radio, newspapers and other large scale of measurement media. This ensuresthat advertizing reaches the largest amount of people in the shortest amount oftime. It is likely that the consumer will be more interested in the product ifthey hear of on a national level such as TV or Radio. We must watch out forother companies in Britain that sell a similar product or overseas companiesthat sell in Britain so Pakanawa can analyse the British marketing strategy and emend upon it. Market Segmentation is also another factor to take notice of.Market segmentation helps to differentiate products for different age groups.For most product, there are segments of t he market that you need to specificallyadvertise to. Fore example, different methods of advertising would be needed ifyou were to advertise to parents than to the children. For a plenitude of productstheir are a lot of age groups that you need to advertise for and these must betaken into consideration. We must analyse the different market segments that areapplicable to Pakanawa and investigate how we can sweat these differentmarket segments. An ad campaign is a very sensible idea because no-one will knowabout our products without the use of advertising. This means that we must subdue on a good ad campaign so people will know about our products.Approximate prices are shown below for large scale advertisingTVPrice agreed with company (500,000 + ) Radio(250,000 + ) Newspaper lineage ad250 Newspaperfull page700-900 Cinema booklets650.00 per cinema Flyers0.08 per airmanAs is shown above, advertising is very expensive when done on a large scale soto justify any form of large scale adve rtising it must be proven to be effective.At Pakanawa we must consider all angles of the media and come to a conclusionabout advertising.What sort of advertising should you use?By far the most far reaching of these strategies is Television advertising. Alarge amount of people watch TV and this type of advertising will reach manysocial groups. Although this type of advertising is very expensive and even moreso during peak times, TV advertising should be seen by the masses andencouraging a lot of new customers, so in time, TV advertising will pay foritself.
It was a regular Saturday afternoon. The sun was out, the birds were singing and the flowers were blossoming. Everything was perfect in my little neighborhood. I was bonnie getting ready to go to my full cousins house. My cousin and I were like best friends, we always hung out together, and played together, we practic every(prenominal)y did everything together. Sometimes shed take to my house and sometimes Id go to hers, it was very convenient living in the same neighborhood. I grabbed my back pack, including a phone for emergencies only, my wallet just in case, and my journal a small book that I took everywhere with me. I was all set, I hugged my parents and kissed them goodbye and was on my way. I had always gone walk of life to her house, since she didnt live very far. At my cousins house we played board games and laughed as we watched some cartoons, when her mother had decided to take us shop for some sweets. As we approached our destination I saw a blind military man si tting on the ground in front of the caudex with a cardboard sign that read Its a beautiful day and I cant even see it. He was all solely with a cup in his hands with probably only a few quarters in there. I was confused as to wherefore this man was all alone, where was his wife, his children? I was only 13 and believed that everyone had a family and a perfect life, imagine my disappointment seeing the man alone on the ground. We entered the ancestry and grabbed a few Kitkats and some chips and headed back outside, walking towards the car. I see the man, just staring, people passing by, not even looking at him, and just ignoring him as they go on with their daily lives. I went back to my cousins house, not thinking often of it. Days later, my mother and I come back to the same store to ge... ...ned the Global Humanitarian Action Award for her work around the world. She continues to travel the world to draw attention to globose issues (bio. reliable History). Closing Angelina Jolies work around the world has saved many lives she has helped more people than I can count. She has worked hard to earn her patronage as ambassador of UN, and she disserves it. Angelina has done some strange things in the past, but she makes up for it by taking time out of her busy schedule and circumstances others. That olfaction I had as a kid seeing that blind man on the ground is what I imagine she feels seeing people is Syria, Cambodia, Jordan and much more. Angelina Jolie does book flaws, and may not always make the best decisions and thats because shes human, but her work in all those countries, and all the money shes donated to munificence is what makes her 2013s person of the year. Essay -- It was a regular Saturday afternoon. The sun was out, the birds were singing and the flowers were blossoming. Everything was perfect in my little neighborhood. I was just getting ready to go to my cousins house. My cousin and I were like best friends, we always hu ng out together, and played together, we practically did everything together. Sometimes shed come to my house and sometimes Id go to hers, it was very convenient living in the same neighborhood. I grabbed my back pack, including a phone for emergencies only, my wallet just in case, and my diary a small book that I took everywhere with me. I was all set, I hugged my parents and kissed them goodbye and was on my way. I had always gone walking to her house, since she didnt live very far. At my cousins house we played board games and laughed as we watched some cartoons, when her mother had decided to take us shopping for some sweets. As we approached our destination I saw a blind man sitting on the ground in front of the store with a cardboard sign that read Its a beautiful day and I cant even see it. He was all alone with a cup in his hands with probably only a few quarters in there. I was confused as to why this man was all alone, where was his wife, his children? I was only 13 a nd believed that everyone had a family and a perfect life, imagine my disappointment seeing the man alone on the ground. We entered the store and grabbed a few Kitkats and some chips and headed back outside, walking towards the car. I see the man, just staring, people passing by, not even looking at him, and just ignoring him as they go on with their daily lives. I went back to my cousins house, not thinking much of it. Days later, my mother and I come back to the same store to ge... ...ned the Global Humanitarian Action Award for her work around the world. She continues to travel the world to draw attention to global issues (bio. True History). Closing Angelina Jolies work around the world has saved many lives she has helped more people than I can count. She has worked hard to earn her title as ambassador of UN, and she disserves it. Angelina has done some strange things in the past, but she makes up for it by taking time out of her busy schedule and helping others. That feeling I had as a kid seeing that blind man on the ground is what I imagine she feels seeing people is Syria, Cambodia, Jordan and much more. Angelina Jolie does have flaws, and may not always make the best decisions and thats because shes human, but her work in all those countries, and all the money shes donated to charity is what makes her 2013s person of the year.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
The jungle by Upton SinclaireWe can moreover know things with an experience for them by some means or other. We all know what we do, and we do not know what will happen. Our educated guesses failing at times and being glorified for justifications sake later. The family in Upton Sinclairs The Jungle depicts just this by every fiber of their hard working being. The qualities above present a perfected formula for real freedom. The gaining of knowledge and the failing or success that will happen to us. We can plan all we want, but freedom comes only to those who plan the luckiest. Take Jurgis (pronounced Yergis) for example. The strongest of the strong men in the world. He could stop a locomotive and beat John Henry in a fistfight. And why is this? He is strong, and his spirit is unconquerable. Hell just work harder if you give him more(prenominal) work. And what a commodity for his employers Ever to continue along the drooling style of action, ever in the opposition of mother nature, and ever driven by the idea that he will be supporting his beloved family. To live a life in the y bulge outh of the 1900s, and in America, was the dream of so many people. To escape their domineering lands, the places their forefathers called home, to live in a place where it was known that every man was free and able to do his own thing, so long as he didnt hurt another. Free will, and no one could stop him for doing it. It would seem that a hard worker could go real far. In this time period much(prenominal) hopes were wasted on capitalism. The shammy American dream struck all those who sought to take residence in its comforting nest, and then thrust them out like so many chicks to learn to fly on their own in a harsh and unforgiving world. No man, on any scotch of strength could survive and live this dream, unless he was dishonest. Jurgis was an honest man, and so was his family of Lithuanians. Working harder every day for the same scraps of so many men. The work came, and on ly because Jurgis could prove his strength. Job was the only word he really knew when coming to the stockyards, and so it was his nervous energy that made him get a job. Any discussion of The
The Style, Technique, and Structure of subject matter of fantasm The novella Heart of fantasm by Joseph Conrad is proof that a novel does not have to be long to have literary merit. Heart of Darkness is quite short, yet intriguing, due to the content of the novel. Much like Shakespeares Hamlet, Heart of Darkness overwhelms the reader by the power of the story so that one will never feel quite satisfied with their attempts to intellectualize the experience (Adelman 8). Heart of Darkness was written during the time of British imperialism and extreme exploitation of Africans in the Congo. The British were exploiting the Africans in an effort to extract ivory from the primitive jungle. Throughout the novel, Conrad expresses his dislike with the civilized whiteness people exploiting the savage black Africans. Conrad also uses several literary devices in his writing to portray and express several messages. The writing style, techniques, structure and themes in Heart of Darkness all combine to create one of the most renowned, respected and mysterious novels of all time. Conrad wrote an ultimate enigma for readers to interpret and critically analyze for years to come. Conrads righteousness in style is very controversial some believe that he is a literary genius (Adelman 16), while others criticize him for being limited, pretentious and dark ((Adelman 16). Throughout the novel, Conrad uses ample amounts of descriptive language, vivid imagery, and powerful symbolism. The vague part is that he leaves it up to the reader to interpret his mysterious and unspeakable enigmas. Conrads descriptive language in Heart of Darkness is present from the beginning to the end. With the opening paragraphs d... ...xperience (Adelman 8). Overall, readers must interpret for themselves which meanings Conrad intended or if he intended all the meanings. This deep novel by Joseph Conrad is not easy to read but is valuable knowledge once it is read. Works Cited Adelman, Gary. Hear t of Darkness Search for the Unconscious. Boston Twayne Publishers, 1987. Conrad, Joseph. The Heart of Darkness. Ed. Cedric Watts. London Everyman, 1995. Fothergill, Anthony. open air Guides to Literature Heart of Darkness. Philadelphia Open University Press, 1989. Glassman, Peter J. Language and Being Joseph Conrad and the Literature of the Personality. New York and London Columbia University Press, 1976. Tindall, W.Y. The Duty of Marlow. In Conrads Heart of Darkness and the Critics. Ed. Bruce Harkness. Belmont, calcium Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1968.
Monday, May 27, 2019
TitleThe Call Of The WildAuthor Jack LondonCopyright 1986SettingThe beginning setting takes set on the property of Judge Miller in Santa Clara Valley, California in 1897. Later the setting takes place in Alaska during the Gold Rush of the Klondike.Main reputation commit is the only main character of the book. Buck is a dog who is part SaintBernard and part Shephard.SummaryBuck is my favorite character of the book. He had such a great life before he was stolen and sold to some real nasty people. Buck was treated very badly and he had to learn how to survive. He didnt let the people know he was scared. The only way to survive was to listen, watch and learn. Buck wanted to be the drawing card and fought for what he wanted and he got it.Buck had a great life living with Judge Miller and his family. He had free run of the place and contend with his daughters and hunted with his sons. All the other animals were stuck in the house or behind fences.One day a gardener named Manuel, that Buck had trusted, stole Buck and took him to a train station and sold him to people who used large dogs to pull sleds in Alaska. These men were not nice and would beat Buck and the other dogs very badly to let them know who was boss. Buck and the other dogs had no idea what was happening to them. The dogs were put onto the trains and taken to a ship that took them to Alaska where they would be sold over again in teams to pull the sleds of people looking for gold and other work. When Buck and the other dogs got off the ship, the first thing they saw was white. They didnt know what it was. It was snow. They intentional quickly how hard and scary this would be. Other dogs being used were wild wolves that would tear the new dogs apart if they had the chance.Buck and eight other dogs were sold to Perrault and Francois. Buck knew he needed to learn how to survive fast. One of the dogs, Spitz, who was the leader was a wolf and very mean. He would bully the other dogs. Buck hated him and nonpareil day wanted to take him down to take his place as leader. The dogs had to live through many dangers and survive with little food and sleep.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
desoxyribonucleic acid, as we all know, is esteemed with the title of Master Molecule . The three letters of deoxyribonucleic acid denotes of deoxyribonucleic acid . Now the subject that we ponder on is why desoxyribonucleic acid is so alpha to us. Why are the researchers & scientist persistently working on desoxyribonucleic acid? Why it is so important to know the tiniest details of DNA complex body part and function.? The simplest answer for Why Is DNA Important? is that DNA is the prerequisite for supports inception. Firstly, it transfers hereditary in nominateation from generation to generation.Secondly, it controls the production of proteins. DNA even determines the structure of the cell, meaning whether it would be a nerve cell or eye cell etc. Our DNA seems to be ultimately responsible for the size, specify and function of all protein that our bodies make. Similarly, the DNA of each plant and animal seems to be ultimately responsible for the size, shape and function of every protein that each of them makes. We will now constrict a small overview on history, physical properties , chemical properties of DNA. Overview on History DNA was first isolated by Friedrich Miescher , who in 1869 discovered a microscopic substance in the pus of discarded surgical bandages that he called NUCLEIN Finally in 1953, working together at the University of Cambridge in England, James Watson, an American scientist, and Francis Crick, a British researcher, made a major scientific breakthrough when they discovered the famous parallel lock the structure of DNA, the molecule of life. In 2000 , a rough draft of a map of whole human genome was completed. In 2003,the final draft was completed .This information is be utilise to understand and function of disease. An interesting fact is If we unwrap all of the DNA of one individuals body cell , we could reach the daydream Physical Properties In living organisms such as humans, DNA exists as a pair of molecules rather than a single molecule. These strands are entwined in the shape of a double helix and the helix is kept stable by hydrogen bonds, which can be found between the bases attached to the 2 strands. A long polymer, DNA is made up of smaller social units called understructures.In turn, each nucleotide consists of a phosphate group, a prick and a nitrogenous base. two helical chains each coiled round the analogous axis, and each with a pitch of 34A and a radius of 10A According to another study, when measured in a particular solution, the DNA chain measured 22 to 26A wide, and one nucleotide unit measured 3. 3A (0. 33nm) long * Base Pairing 1. Base pairing is a defining property of DNA and was particularly evoke when it was first discovered because it suggested the copying mechanism for DNA. 2.In DNA, bases are specific in that an adenine base, for example, only pairs with a thymine base. Following on that premise, a nose candy base will only bond to a guanine base. This base pairin g is also known as complementary base pairing. * DNA Grooves DNA has two kinds of grooves that play important roles in its functioning. 1. Major and minor grooves are structures to allow for necessary proteins in your body to make contact with bases. You might inquire what makes it so important for proteins to attach to the bases. * DNA SupercoilingIf you try to picture a rope, you can get a visual image of DNA supercoiling. 1. This coiling is a central property of DNA. DNA can be in a relaxed or coiled state and it is this coiling that allows our extremely long strands of DNA to perish or pack into the comparatively much smaller cells in our bodies. * DNA Conformations DNA can exist in different conformations and these are important for a take off of DNA mechanisms. These conformations interact with enzymes in your body and are also involved in aspects such as DNA repair. * TemperatureAs thermal energy increases, the absolute frequency of hydrogen bonds breaking between the mol ecules increases. The Tm (melting temperature) of a DNA molecule is the temperature in which half the DNA molecules are denatures * DENSITY A. Density can be measured by CsCl-density ul bentrifugation B. Density can be used to estimate G+C content C. Density studies show the existence of satellite DNA * pH pH is lower then one result in the breakage of phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides and breakage of the N-glycosidic bond between the carbohydrate and purine bases . H of round 4 results in the selective breakage of N-glycosidic bonds between the sugar and purinesBase tends to change the polarity of groups involved in hydrogen bondsDNA is resistant to hydrolysis to about pH 13 * DENATURATION DNA is considered denatured when the double stranded DNA molecule is converted into two single stranded molecules CHEMICAL PROPERTIES A nucleoside is made of a sugar + a nitrogenous base. A nucleotide is made of a phosphate + a sugar + a nitrogenous base.In DNA, the nucleotide is a deoxy ribonucleotide (in RNA, the nucleotide is a ribonucleotide). * Phosphoric acid Gives a phosphate group. * Sugar Deoxyribose, which is a cyclic pentose (5-carbon sugar). Note the sugar in RNA is a ribose. Carbons in the sugar are noted from 1 to 5. A nitrogen atom from the nitrogenous base links to C1 (glycosidic link), and the phosphate links to C5 (ester link) to make the nucleotide. The nucleotide is thence phosphate C5 sugar C1 base. * Nitrogenous bases Aromatic heterocycles there are purines and pyrimidines. Purines adenine (A) and guanine (G). Pyrimidines cytosine (C) and thymine (T) (Note thymine is replaced by uracyle (U) in RNA) The backbone of the DNA strand is made from alternating phosphate and sugar residues. 10 The sugar in DNA is 2-deoxyribose, which is a pentose (five-carbon) sugar. * The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between the third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings. * These asymmetric bonds mean a st rand of DNA has a direction. In a double helix the direction of the nucleotides in one strand is opposite to their direction in the other strand the strands are antiparallel. The asymmetric ends of DNA strands are called the 5? (five prime) and 3? (three prime) ends, with the 5 end having a terminal phosphate group and the 3 end a terminal hydroxyl group. The DNA double helix is stabilized primarily by two forces hydrogen bonds between nucleotides & base-stacking interactions among the aromatic nucleobases Role that DNA plays in life DNA is the blueprint of biological life from its inception to its growth and till death.Its discovery has not only revolutionized science and medicine but it has affected all walks of life whether they are social, legal, criminal or inheritance related. DNAs discovery has become important to the extent that it has even influenced a nations security parameters / concerns, as scientists have gone(a) all the way to developing biological weapons. Genealogy The study of ancestry, depends on the study of DNA. With the help of verbal and written history, and cues from DNA testing, one can trace his ancestors and learn about his family tree. Forensic science and its applicationsDNA is an important part of it.It has resulted in many breakthroughs in criminal cases as it can be used to trace the criminals by comparing the DNA samples found on the crime scene with those extracted from the suspects. Agriculture Scientists have used this knowledge to improve the food products and crops by genetically modifying them and making them more powerful to fight diseases. Some really Interesting information about DNA * 99. 9% of our DNA sequence is the same as other humans. This 0. 1% DNA difference between us may have to do with the number of nucleotides in a persons DNA When DNA is copied into a new life , the nucleotides are either gained or lost in the process. This gain or loss results in our differences * It would take a person typing 60 words p er minute, 8 hour a day, around 50 years to type the human genome * Our entire DNA sequence is called a genome and theres an estimated 3000,000,000 DNA bases in our genome * A complete 3 billion base genome would take 3 GIGABYTES of storage space. * Our entire DNA sequence would fill 2001,000 pages * Human and Chimps share anywhere between 94-99% of their DNA * According to a recent research ,humans have at least 1-4% NEANDERTHAL DNA . At some point HOMOSAPIENS and NEANDERTHAL mingled and mated References * Alberts, Bruce Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts and Peter Walters (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell Fourth Edition. cutting York and London Garland Science. * Wikipedia- http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/DNA * Watson J. D. and Crick F. H. C. (1953). A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (PDF) * T. M. Devlins Textbook of Biochemistry 7th (Seventh) edition(Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations (Textbook of Biochemistry w/ Clinical Correl ations) Hardcover)(2010)
Saturday, May 25, 2019
CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Back ground of Study Working upper occurrence refers to that part of the pisseds jacket crown, which is required for financing short- verge or electric current assets much(prenominal) a money marketable securities, debtors and inventories. Funds thus, invested in current assets keep revolving fast and are unendingly converted into cash and this cash flow out a off in exchange for other current assets. Working Capital is also known as revolving or circulating capital or short-term capital. Therefore, functional capital trouble is the same of gasity management and its relate inversely with positiveness.It is consequence for any industries due to the investment funds in Current Assets (CA) must be adequate be urinate inadequate or excessive inadequate on the job(p) capital female genitals confuse production and dejection also threaten the solvency of firm, if it fails to meet its current obligation excessive investment in CA should be avoide d, since it impairs firms positiveness Secondly, need for operatives capital arises due to increasing level of line of reasoning activity it is to provided quickly some time surplus fund may arises which should be invested in piddling term securities , they should non be kept idle.The importance of Working capital management compelled to the firms to try the optimum level of investment in each fraction such as inventories, cash, account receivables but the firm also consider to way of financing the current assets. This lowlys, conside symmetryn of current liabilities which include account containables, nones payable, entertain payable and other shot-term debt.In addition, the firm can adopt an aggressive working capital management policy with a low level of current assets as a partage of total assets, or it may also be utilize for the financing decisions of the firm in the form of graduate(prenominal) level of current liabilities as a percentage of total liabilities( Nazir and Afza,2009), and it is the opposite in conservative working capital management policy. On the other hand, it should be distinguished surrounded by three policies that related directly with the working capital efficiency.First policy is find oution policy, that legal professiond by honest receivables collection point in time (ARCP) which is meaning the sightly distance of time required to convert the firm receivables into cash. Second policy is blood line policy, which expressed by add up renewing inventory accomplishment (ACI). It means the average length of time required to convert raw materials into finished goods and then sell these goods.Third policy of working capital efficiency is recompense policy, which measured by average payment period (APP) that means the length time amidst the purchase of materials and the payment of cash (Weston and Brigham,1993). These policies require from company to accelerate the collections of receivables, accelerate its inve ntory, accelerate the payment cycle, and reduce the cost of the working capital needs.Above mentioned policies can be merged them in one general policy, is called cash conversion cycle (ccc) positive by Richards and Laughlin(1980) which focuses on the length of time amongst when the firm makes payments and when it receives cash inflow. To fulfill the one of the approximately important goal of organization to maximization of make do holders wealth of a firm is possible only when there is sufficient return from the operations and successful sales activity is needed for earning profit sales without convert into cash immediately.To generate the sales and revenue activities there allow for be the s invisible time lap between the sale of good and receipt of cash. Hence, the time taken to convert raw material into cash is known as operating cycle that includes following activities in contrary flesh. At first phase * modulation of cash into raw material * Conversion of raw material into work in progress * Conversion of Work in progress into finished goods * Conversion of finished goods into Sales ( Debtors and cash) At second Phase Cash received and at third phase is payment of credit.A low cash conversion cycle allows the managers to minimize holdings of relative unproductive assets such as cash and marketable securities, preserves the firms debt dexterity since less short-term borrowing is required to provide liquidity and corresponds to a higher present value of net cash flows from firms assets Moreover, the cash conversion cycle is an important technique of analysis for the financial mangers of firm to assess why and when the firm needs more cash to sustain its activities. I am going to comparative study of Surya Nepal Private particular (SNPL) is an Indo-Nepal-UK joint enture, which started operations in Nepal in 1986. SNPL, a subsidiary of ITC Ltd, India, is the largest private sector enterprise in Nepal. The pro per centum shares are held by disper sed Nepalese shareholders and British American Tobacco, UK. Surya Nepals businesses include manufacture and marketing of cigarettes and readymade garments in Nepal as well as exports of made garments with a total turnover of over US $100 million. Secondly, The guiding force behind Daburs growth and success has been the wealth of nature and its limitless capacity to support life.And we have constantly taken care to preserve and protect this natural bounty. With this overall vision of and to eco-sustenance, expand Daburs re reference book and production base, Dabur Nepal Private Limited was set up as an independent Group company in 1992. This new company, set amidst the verdant greens and towering mountains of the Himalayan kingdom of Nepal, has bang a unique bond of technology and preservation. 1. 2 Problem of Statement The management of a companys working capital significantly influences its profitableness. In the short term, companies hazard being short on liquidity if the wor king capital level deteriorates.In the coherent term, too much working capital lowers the return on investment and reduces the value of the company. In contrast, a reduction of the working capital can significantly improve cash flows and free up capital from a companys balance sheet. This capital can then be used to reduce debts, pay dividends to investors or reinvest in company growth. In the context of Nepal there is not a good deal implementation of working capital management technique that can brings the liquidity problem in short term and solvency problem in long term due to loss on business.This can be the one most important reason for the lower growth rate of manufacturing firm. I want to gain insight into this field and to identify potential areas for optimization of working capital management for the positivity on the Nepalese manufacturing firm. Performance of firm on the root word of working capital management is very essential to reach the optimum level of working ca pital then to enhance their profitability. But these elements can be affected by Nature of business, seasonality of operations, production policy, market condition, and political scenario.Therefore, I have done this investigation to know the answer of following question. a. What are the factors of working capital for Nepalese manufacturing firm? b. How can working capital affects the performance to enhance profitability of firms? c. How is the performance of firm to achieve the optimal working capital in order to maximize the profitability? 1. 3 Objective of the Study The main objective of the research is to measure the impact of working capital management on the profitability for Nepalese manufacturing firm. The specific objectives of the study are summarizing as following. a.To analyze the family between working capital management and profitability for manufacturing firm. b. To check over the relationship between sizing of firm and the profitability c. To Know the relationship b etween leverage and profitability. 1. 4 Limitation of the Study This study is intended to measure the impact of working capital management on profitability of Nepalese manufacturing firm but the study also influences from the following limitation. a. There isnt financial stag for the depth study. b. Due to the time constraints it is not possible to analyze the each variable in details. c.In depth analysis and the study of financial position is not feasible because of the policy and privacy of firm. d. The information is assuming true that is taken from different source. CHAPTER-II LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Literature Review match to Wilner (2000) most firms extensively use trade credit despite its apparent greater cost, and trade credit interest rates commonly exceed 18 percent and Deloof (2003) also found that according to National Bank statistics during 1997, Belgian companies had accounts payable of only 13% of the total asset and accounts receivable and Inventory of 17% and 10% o f the total asset respectively.Singh and Pandey (2008) discussed the impact of working capital management in the profitability of Hindalco Industries Limited. Regression cores showed that current ratio, liquid ratio, receivable turnover ratio and working capital to total assets had statically significant impact on profitability. Dong and Su (2010) examined the relationship between profitability, the cash onversion cycle and its component for listed firms in Vietnam stock market for period (2006-2008). They resulted that there is steady negative relationship between cash conversion cycle and the profitability.Cote and Latham (1999, p. 261) argued that management of receivables, inventory and accounts payable have tremendous impact on cash flows, which in turn affect the profitability of firms. According to Long, Malitz and Ravid (1993) it is seen that liberal credit terms to the customers plus the sales level of the firm, though having a unceasing troubleshooting with managing s hort term financing in the finance department. The decision lays with the firm which one to put more importance on. Scherr (1989, p. 6) claimed that companies can strengthen strong cash flow levels, improve profitability, budgeting and forecasting process, predictability and manageability of results, heighten risk if they implement the best practices in working capital. Amit, Sur and Rakshit (2005) studied the relationship between working capital and profitability in the context of Indian pharmaceutical industries and concluded that no definite relationship can be established between profitability and liquidity. Cote and Latham (1999, p. 61) argued that management of receivables, inventory and accounts payable have tremendous impact on cash flows, which in turn affect the profitability of firms. Scherr (1989, p. 16) claimed that companies can strengthen strong cash flow levels, improve profitability, budgeting and forecasting process, predictability and manageability of results, hei ghten risk if they implement the best practices in working capital. Eljelly(2004) identified the relation between profitability and liquidity who was examined, as measured by current ratio and cash open frame (cash conversion cycle) on a sample of joint stock firms in Saudi Arabia.The study found that the cash conversion cycle was of more importance as a measure of liquidity than the current ratio that affects profitability. The size variable was found to have significant effect on profitability at the industry level. The results were stable and had important implications for liquidity management in assorted Saudi firms. First, it was clear that there was a negative relationship between profitability and liquidity indicators such as current ratio and cash gap in the Saudi sample examined. Second, the study also revealed that there was great variation among industries with respect to the significant measure of liquidity.Sur Biswas and Ganguly (2001) revealed in their study of India n atomic number 13 producing industry, a very significant positive association between liquidity and profitability. All previous studies had reached to the same results approximately, which had proved there is the negative relationship between the working capital, debt ratio, current ratio and profitability, and the positive relationship between size of the firm with profitability. This study tries to depend on previous studies to provide new turn up on how working capital can effect on the profitability. . 2 Research Frame Work Model ROA Leverage Performance Working Capital Efficiency Profitability of the Firm Size of Firm Current Liabilities Current Assets Organization Planning Growth of business Ln of Sales Debt ratio Liquidity ratio CR All the components such as Working Capital, Profitability and Size of the firms, Liquidity, and Leverage performance are interrelated to each other. The working capital affects the profitability of the firm. Similarly size, leverage, and liquidi ty affect the working capital requirement and profitability of the firm.If there is low in current assets then it cant pay the short term obligation and if firms keep in high ratio then investment opportunity pass on lose that decreases the value of profitability elements such as ROE and ROA. Secondly, if there is high concentration on sales by keeping low liquid assets then profit can increase and it helps to increase the growth rate of company and fulfill the objective of shareholders wealth maximization and ease for the competition but low liquid assets can creates the risk of liquidity. Therefore, all components of above mentioned are interrelated positively and negatively.After analyzing the financial ratio BOD, manager can formulate the policy for sustainable business as well as investors will take best decision for the investment. This study has been guided according to the above variables and discussed the variables relation after studied of both firms in detail in the bel ow. Hence, this study will benefit for the best decision of working capital requirement to manage the profitability, leverage in long term and to growth the firm in stable rate. CHAPTER-III DATA COLLECTION AND METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Research Data CollectionThe data has taken from the secondary source regarding to the official site of Surya Nepal Pvt. Ltd and Dabur Nepal Pvt Ltd. Secondary data is assumed as an enough and reliable. Sample of this study has been focused on the joint venture Nepalese manufacturing firms. These cardinal firms have chosen as a sample company due to big market in Nepal. To fulfill the objective of research, report is prepared by taking a financial data of two sample companies from 2006 to 2011. 3. 2 Definition of variable I have used of dependent and independent variables to complete the study are as below.Dependent variables include profitability measure which will be computed by the following equation Return on Assets (ROA)=Net operational IncomeTotal Asset s Secondly, independent variables have been divided in two parts. First part includes working capital management variables. Average receivable collections period (ARCP) are used to express the credit policy. It is calculated by using following equation Average receivable collections period (ARCP)=Account Receivables *365/Sales Average conversion inventory period (ACIP), which is expressed the inventory policy.It will be identified by following formula Average conversion inventory period (ACIP)= Inventory *365/ price of Sales Average payment period (APP) is used to reflect the payment policy it is measured measured by following equation Average payment period (APP) =Accounts Payables *365/Cost of Sales Cash conversion cycle ( cardinal) is used to express the overall impact on working capital efficiency, and that is calculated by using following equation. Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC)=ARCP+ACIP-APP At the second phase of independent variables has been included as below. Size of the company = Natural of logarithm of sales (LNS). Current ratio (CR) = Current assets/Current Liabilities. Financial leverage ratio (FL) = Total Liabilities / Total Assets. 3. 3 Empirical Analysis This section contains the descriptive analysis by taking the help of mean, standard difference, maximum and minimum value of all variables that is used in study. Similary, on the second phase of analysis here has been explained the relationship between the variables by using correlation coefficient. Moreover, regression model has been used to quantify the relation between variable and to measure the true statement of this report.Multiple regression models have used to complete the regression analysis. All types of analysis and graphical representation will be expressed by using the MS office package 2007. For this study I have used 4 regression models to quantify the relation and model is as below. 1. ROA= a+b1ARCP+b2CR+b3FL+b4LNS (model -1) 2. ROA= a+b1ACIP+b2CR+b3FL+b4LNS (model-2) 3. ROA= a+b1APP+b2CR+b3FL+b4LNS (model-3) 4. ROA= a+b1CCC+b2CR+b3FL+b4LNS (model-3) CHAPTER-IV DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 5. 1. Empirical Analysis and Findings 4. 1. 1Descriptive Analysis Dabur Nepal Pvt. Ltd (Table 1) ROA ARCP ACIP APP CCC CR FL Lns Mean 0. 034 35. 67 75. 12 42. 35 68. 44 2. 00 0. 248 21. 73 Standard Deviation 0. 028 19. 74 31. 74 35. 27 39. 24 0. 676 0. 055 0. 346 Minimum 0. 001 4. 13 17. 37 8. 33 6. 30 1. 52 0. 207 21. 39 Maximum 0. 084 55. 23 111. 78 93. 46 120. 94 3. 19 0. 351 22. 38 Count 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 According to the above table, ROA on average is 34% and ROA beed between 0. 1 % to 0. 84%. The average receivables collection period has 5 geezerhood (approximately) as minimum to collect its receivables from the purchasers but it takes 55. 23 long time as maximum to collect its receivable.The average days of generating its sales on account about 35. 67 days. In addition, the average conversion inventory period (ACIP) takes about 17. 37 days to se ll all its inventory as minimum and takes 111. 78 days as maximum. The mean days to sell the inventories are 75. 12 days with standard deviation of 31. 74 days. About the APP, the firm has a minimum time 8. 33 days to pay its purchases on account and 93. 46 days as a maximum time. It takes an average 42. 35 days to pay its purchase with standard deviation of 35. 27. The cash conversion cycle (CCC) has 6. 30 days as a minimum time and maximum is 120. 94 days.The minimum current ratio (CR ) of the firm is 1. 52 and maximum is 3. 19 with the standard deviation of 0. 55%. The Natural Logarithm of size (LNS) shows minimum sales is 21. 39 and maximum is 22. 38 with the average of 21. 73. About the financial leverage is 20% as minimum and maximum is 35% with the standard deviation of 0. 55%. Surya Nepal PVT. LTD (Table 2) ROA ARCP ACIP APP CCC CR FL LNS Mean 0. 287 5. 11 191. 55 63. 45 133. 21 1. 72 0. 424 22. 82 Standard Deviation 0. 086 2. 90 21. 84 5. 88 19. 96 0. 678 0. 152 0 . 339 Minimum 0. 178 2. 54 170. 51 57. 0 110. 72 1. 06 0. 255 22. 42 Maximum 0. 389 9. 86 232. 04 73. 16 167. 62 2. 44 0. 594 23. 31 Count 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 an average return on assets(ROA) is just 28% which is lower than Dabur Nepal Ltd. But the minimum and maximum value of ROA exists between 17 % to 38 % and less variability comparison with Dabur Nepal Ltd. The Average receivable collection period (ARCP) is 5. 11 days approximately and lower than Dabur. Thus, collection capacity of dabur is very strong. similarly, ACIP of Surya Nepal exist between 170. 51 days to 232. 04 days. About the average CCC of Surya Nepal is 133. 1 days which is higher than Dabur Nepal. Therefore, we can say that, cash inflow days in the Dabur Company are quicker than Surya Nepal. Moreover, an average 42% portion is existed under the total assets of the Surya firm that is higher than Dabur Company. It means, Surya Nepal takes more loans for the business. About the average size of Surya Nepal is 22. 82 that i s higher than Dabur. Graph 1 source Table 1 and 2 Let summarize the above result a. ROA of Surya Nepal is higher that tends to the meaning of profitability intensiveness is good rather than Dabur Nepal Pvt. Ltd. b. Credit collection capacity is stronger of Surya Nepal Pvt.Ltd. c. Surya Nepal Ltd. takes more time to convert the goods in raw material. d. Surya Nepal pays to supplier at delay comparison with Dabur. e. CCC of Surya is higher due to higher in ACIP and APP. 4. 1. 2. Correlation Coefficient Analysis Dabur Nepal Ltd. (Table 3) ROA ARCP ACIP APP CCC CR FL Lns ROA 1 ARCP -0. 903 1 ACIP -0. 666 0. 537 1 APP -0. 074 0. 141 0. 705 1 CCC -0. 927 0. 811 0. 446 -0. 258 1 CR 0. 835 -0. 627 -0. 888 -0. 450 -0. 6291 1 FL -0. 095 0. 285 -0. 007 -0. 152 0. 2743 0. 48 1 Lns 0. 144 -0. 172 0. 348 0. 609 -0. 352 -0. 203 -0. 572 1 Surya Nepal Pvt. Ltd (Table 4) ROA ARCP ACIP APP CCC CR FL LNS ROA 1 ARCP -0. 420 1 ACIP 0. 393 -0. 174 1 APP -0 . 359 -0. 402 0. 441 1 CCC -0. 263 0. 073 0. 939 0. 130 1 CR -0. 892 0. 493 -0. 443 -0. 736 -0. 196 1 FL -0. 869 -0. 457 0. 541 0. 769 0. 299 -0. 992 1 LNS 0. 958 -0. 437 0. 569 0. 464 0. 423 -0. 893 0. 902 1 According to the Table 3 and 4, Return on Assets (ROA) has negative relationship with ARCP.It tends to the meaning of longer the time of collection days reduces the profitability of firm. Therefore, if a firm reduces the length between sales and collection, it will increase the profitability through reinvest collections in profitable investments. Correlation results related negatively between the average conversion conversion inventories (ACIP) and ROA significantly in the case of Dabur. It means when the firm reduces the length time required converting raw material in to finished goods and then to sell those goods that terzetto to enhance profit.But in the case of Surya Nepal, there is positive relationship between ARCP and ROA. It means, it should take more stock f or the high profit. The average Payment Period (APP) has negatively correlation with Profitability. It means, if the both firm quash the length time between purchases goods and payment of the value of goods, it will lead to increase profitability. There are negative relationship between cash conversion cycle (CCC) and ROA. If the firms shorten its conversion cycle as much as possible without hurting its operation, it will reflect positively on profitability.Correlation coefficient of the size (LNS) firm is positive relationship with profitability that indicates if the firm increases its size of sales it will lead to increase its profitability. Current ratio refers to liquidity of the firm which relates positively correlated with ROA in case of Dabur but negatively correlated with ROA in case of Surya Nepal. Generally, if the firm invests its liquidity very well, it will generate high return and as per situation there might be required or not for holding of stocks in long term. Abou t the Financial leverage that is negatively correlated with profitability.It means, if the firm depends on the financial leverage as much as need, ti carry itself financial obligation such as interest payment and principal payment and then it reflects negatively on its profitability. Dabur Nepal Pvt. Ltd. (Table 5) Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 ROA 0. 031 0. 030 0. 022 0. 001 0. 084 0. 038 CCC 85. 74 86. 30 63. 87 120. 93 6. 29 47. 46 Source Table 5. Graph 2 terminal According to the above finding, the increasing in the value of CCC that decreases the value of ROA. And it is proved that there is negative relationship between ROA and CCC.Surya Nepal Pvt. Ltd Graph 3. Conclusion In the case of Surya Nepal Pvt. Ltd, there is positive relationship between ROA anc CCC. This means to increase the profit of Surya firm then they have to increase the value of working capital component. 4. 1. 3Regression Analysis Dabur Nepal Pvt. Ltd Table 6 self-employed person Variables Model-1 Model -2 Model-3 Model-4 ARCP -0. 001 ACIP -0. 020 APP -0. 0003 CCC -0. 0004 CR 0. 020 0. 115 0. 045 0. 017 FL -0. 021 -0. 577 -0. 178 -0. 015 Lns 0. 014 0. 053 0. 008 0. 002 Adjusted R2 0. 780 0. 7 0. 517 0. 815 F-test 0. 010* 0. 01* 0. 0051* 0. 077** Surya Nepal Pvt. Ltd Table 7 Independent Variables Model-1 Model-2 Model-3 Model-4 ARCP -0. 003 ACIP 0. 907 APP -0. 008 CCC 0. 953 CR 0. 275 0. 360 0. 221 0. 275 FL -1. 188 -1. 599 -0. 055 -1. 188 Lns 0. 245 0. 224 0. 069 0. 245 Adjusted R2 0. 770 0. 67 0. 71 0. 79 F-test 0. 0876** 0. 0035* 0. 012* 0. 0144* In the above table, F-test has been done at 5%=* and 10% =**significance of level. Table 6 and 7 presents the regression result of two firms of 4 models.According to the table 6 and 7, ARCP and ROA have negatively correlated. For the both Company if there is 1% increase in the days of collection period than less than 1% will decrease on the value of profitability. Similarly, for the both firm, liquidity ratio and size of firm is positively correlated. It means, increases in the sales that will increase the profit volume. Positive value of CR and LNS but negative value of financial leverage (FL) is accepted by all models. This means, if loan come in is increased by 1% then profit will decreased by 0. 21% in case of Dabur but more than 11% in case of Surya Nepal.All the, result revealed that, to increase the profit, firm should decrease the loan amount. According to the Model 4 from table 6, there is negative relationship between ROA and cash conversion cycle. This means, to increase the profit, Dabur should reduce the CCC. It is also supported by the theory of higher the working capital leads to the lower of profitability. On the other hand, model 4 from table 7 reveals that there is positive relationship between ROA and CCC. This result is beyond the theory and if Surya Nepal wants to increase its profit then it should increase the Working capital.It may the cause of poor situation of Nepal ese economy, nature of business as well as less concentration on milieu management that is leading(p) to keep higher amount of stock. According to table 6, model 1 , 2 ,3 and 4 explained the dependent variable by independent in the portion of 78% , 77% , 51%, and 81 % respectively and remaining portion is due to other element. But in the table 7, dependent variable (ROA) is explained by independent in the form of 77%, 67%, 71%, and 79% and remaining part is covered by other elements. CHAPTER-V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. Conclusion and RecommendationWorking capital management is the same of liquidity management and its related inversely with profitability but this theory always doesnt work. Here, I have found the different relationship between the component of working capital and profitability by taking financial data of Dabur Nepal Ltd and Surya Nepal Pvt. Ltd manufacturing from 2006-2011. This study appears that there is a negative significance relationship between average receivables collection period (ARCP), average conversion inventory period (ACIP, only case for Dabur), average payment period (APP) and the profitability measures.It is proved also a negative relationship between the cash conversion cycle (CCC) from the data of Dabur Company but it is not the result of habitual fact because it is also proved that there can be a positive relationship between CCC and Profitability. The reason behind this can be the political risk, poor economy, lack of availability of raw materials and delivery of goods and services in time due to the labor union problem, increasing in supplier power, unavailability of credit facility, poor management of current assets and lack of efficient procedure and subsidy facility from government.After this analysis, the study recommends for the firms to manage their working capital efficiently to achieve the optimal profitability. Thus, the firms can manage their working capital through reduce the length time between sell th e goods and receive cash of sales, it can do that by accelerating its collections. And it also reduce the length time between convert the raw materials into finished goods to sell these goods through. On the other hand the firms should shorten the length time between purchase goods to pay their purchases.All these will lead to shorten the cash conversion cycle and then lead to achieve the optimal profitability. Moreover, we cant say that there will be lower profit due to higher CCC because due to the environmental factors the component of working capital can be influenced and result can go beyond the planning and objective. In the context of Nepal, where the practices of working capital management is poor and as a result firms are generating lower profit. Secondly, long procedure of raw material conversion and delay of payment also reduces the profit of firm.It can be the one cause of Positive relationship between CCC and profitability in case of Surya Nepal Pvt. Ltd. Therefore, red uction of working capital is not only best solution because environment analysis is also important factor. References Amit, K. Malik, Debashish Sur and Debdas Rakshit (2005). Working Capital and Profitability A Study on their Relationship with Reference to Selected Companies in Indian pharmaceutical Industry, GITAM Journal of Management. 3 51-62. Deloof M (2003). Does Working Capital Management Affect Profitability of Belgian Firms? J. Bus. Financ. Account. , 30(314) 573-587. Dr. S. , Ray Evaluating the Impact of Working Capital Management Components on Corporate Profitability Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Firms 2012 Eljelly, A. M. (2004). Liquidity Profitability Tradeoff An Empirical Investigation In An Emerging Market, International Journal Commerce and Management. 14(2), 48-61. J. , Desai N. , A. Joshi, found of Working Capital Management on Profitability of Firms in India March 2, 2011 http//papers. ssrn. com/sol3/papers. cfm? bstract_id=1774686 Lazaradiz, I and Tryfoni dis, D. (2006). Relationship Between Working Capital Management And Profitability Of Listed Firms In the Athens Stock Exchange, Journal of Financial Management and Analysis. 19(1), 26-35. Mukhopadhyay, D (2004), Working Capital Management in Heavy Engineering Firms- A Case Study, myicwai. com. companionship/fm48. Raheman, A. , Nasr, M. (2007). Working Capital Management And Profitability Case Of Pakistani Firms. International Review of Business Research papers, 3(1), 279 300.Scherr, F. C. (1989). Modern Working Capital Management, Text and Cases. Englewood Cliffs, hot Jersey Prentice-Hall International Editions. Sur, D. , Biswas and Ganguly, P (2001). Liquidity Management in Indiaan Private Sector Enterprises A case Study of Indian Primary Aluminium Producing Industry, Indian Journal of Accounting. June 8-14. Shin, H, H and Soenen, L. (1998). Efficiency of working Capital Management and Corporate Profitability, Financial Practice and Education8 (2),37-45.
Friday, May 24, 2019
We take choices every minute of the day. Some of the choices or decisions are conscious ones that we expect thought of and made, most other times we have not thought that we are making them and they may effect us letter and they may effect others in one way or another. Those choices that we lay down have a negative effect on other people people are connected to others in many unique ways. We make choices without view too much of the consequences.By the time the full impact of our choice hits us in the future, it is too late for regrets. In the essay the dying girl that no one helped by London wainwright explains how other people choices tend to effect other peoples lives even by losing their own lives. The choices that we make have an adverse effect on other people however it may not be intentional. You never know what the next person is transaction with and how our choices can influence others decisions and charge their lives in different ways.The choices that we make affect oth ers peoples dreams that they have made for their future charging some ones dream is a positive thing to psyche even in the essay of the dying girl that no one helped it talks about how someone tend to make choice and that choice effects the girl who was killed and had dreams for her future then he died cause no one came for help to be protected from throwing her dreams away. We are responsible for our choices ,and we have to accept the consequences of every deed ,word
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Marcellus Lopez Mr. Buckley Honors American Literature September 20, 2011 Abdulrah spell Zeitoun, Not Clark Kent Zeitoun, a fantastic novel by author Dave Eggers is a tremendous tale of faith and courage set during Hurricane Katrina of August 2005, in New Orleans, lanthanum. The hardy protagonist of the chronicle is Abdulrahman Zeitoun, a Syrian man, living in Louisiana with his wife, Kathy, and his three daughters and stepson. Zeitoun, a former sailor, used to storms and seas, at the time of the hurricane owned a contracting business, building, repairing, and painting.Zeitouns heroism and bravery have made very swooning to me that being a hero is well, really damned stupid. If not that, then at the very least, being a hero is inadvisable and unwise. Zeitoun went far by of his way to help others in a whirlwind of charity and self-assurance. In doing so, he caused great damage to himself and those closest to him. Zeitoun went above and beyond what was asked of him to assist membe rs of his community, ignoring the one topic asked of him by his worried wife, who demanded he evacuate with her and the family.Just as he had gotten into the momentum of routinely feeding some dogs abandoned by their owners daily, Zeitoun was arrested under false charges, make him unable to contact Kathy. His absence left his family distressed and disoriented. Kathy panicked hour by hour, praying to hear from her husband, with no such luck until much later. While Abdulrahman was missing, his family afield was just as worried almost him. His brother would call Kathy, personally urged to bend the truth about her husbands whereabouts. While Zeitoun was imprisoned, his family scrambled to get but a word from, him, not to mention the dogs died.I would stop and think at times in the story, does Zeitoun take the time to assess whether the possible consequences are worth the undecomposed he is trying to do? His time in prison shows him reflecting on the good hed done, as well as prayin g for a better situation, but I do not recall one time at which he says to himself that he definitely should have left New Orleans. Did he not express at all that in all the paranoia of a critical hurricane in a post-9/11 society that a Middle Eastern Muslim man would be a target for bigotry and used as a scapegoat?Although, his imprisonment was completely unwarranted, along with the charges brought against him and accusations made against him, nothing should have been a surprise to Zeitoun. Zeitoun was either unequipped with the knowledge that this countrys ideals of justice are far from perfect and that the executive branch of our government is very prone to quick, harsh decisions and quick, unambiguous judgments or just not very thoughtful. The results of Zeitouns poor decision to stay in New Orleans stuck to Kathy for the rest of what we read of her life in Zeitoun.Kathys noetic healthy was sacrificed all because Zeitoun foolishly remained in the city, with knowledge that a p articularly dangerous storm was approaching. By the end of the story, I couldnt help but acknowledge how much Abdulrahmans courage and faith resemble naivete. He stayed in New Orleans to ride out Katrina because he was obstinate and over-confident. Its fair to say that having been a sailor, he was rugged enough to handle a hurricane, but with a family and the understanding that many other people get mixed up in the spiraling torrent of a natural disaster, it is also fair to say that he could not have been prepared enough.Zeitoun tells that he felt called by theology to help people in the storm, but this, I deduce, was no more than a rush he felt from completing a successful rescue. Everyone wants to be a hero. The sensation of doing good for others does more good for the good-doer than should be done. One of my favorite lyrics says, When you help others, you cant help helping yourself. For a man to be so complacent with an unpredictable force of nature that he would be willing to let it come and see what happens is indubitably foolish.Abdulrahman refusing to evacuate with his wife very close resembles a child on a playground, shouting to his mother, No, Mommy I dont wanna go Zeitoun, an informative novel by author Dave Eggers is a tale about how faith and courage can really screw things up. The foolhardy protagonist of the chronicle, Abdulrahman Zeitoun, shows us how being over-confident and letting ourselves become too comfortable can lastingly repercuss on the lives of our wife and family. Zeitouns over-confidence and naivete have made it absolutely clear that trying to be a hero is really damned stupid.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
1 IntroductionFor many senior grownups in Montreal, the ability to make finishs and chances around their community has profound effects on all facets of their outlives and daily activities. In secern to stay affiliated deep down the community, mobility and handiness by agencies of customary passageway is of primary importance for one-time(a) grownups ( McPherson & A Wister, 2008 ) . It moreover ensures that those who can non drive and/or without entree to a mystical auto are non excluded from the chances of urban life. As maven of the cosmopolite metropoliss in Canada and with a important figure of senior occupants, Montreal should guarantee that populace get over arrangings must non merely expeditiously enable riders to travel from one finish to another but besides make it inclusive and easy to utilize peculiarly for those who face trouble in accessing it such as the older grownups. What do we cognize nearly public trip demands of seniors in Montreal? What has been undertaken to turn to their demands? In order to understand these inquiries, this paper aims to discourse the fol cast downs ( 1 ) the importance of public get over and its effect challenges to older grownups ( 2 ) current patterns in public transportation system go in Montreal ( 3 ) pattern rules and strength-based attack to pass through proviso and, ( 4 ) option attacks to pass through proviso for older grownups in the metropolis.2 Importance of public theodolite and challenges to older grownups in MontrealMontreal, in comparing to the remainder of Quebec, has a greater per centum of older grownups in its world. The 2001 nose count informations shows that Montreal has 442,684 older grownups stand foring 13 per centum of the population and lending 46 per centum for Quebec ( Hodge, 2008 ) . This figure will go on to turn in the coming old ages as it is expected that one in every four Canadian will be 65 or over. About 101,190 seniors in Montreal have at least one signifier of disablement which includes trouble visual perception, hearing, communication, and walking, among others. Aside from sing physical remediation, 28 per centum of them live under poorness and 18 per centum do non hold entree to a private auto ( Landreville & A Bickerstaff-Charron, 2010 TCAIM, 2009 ) . As seniors tend to hold troubles outpouringing a private auto, utilizing public go across so becomes indispensable for guaranting their ability to make their coveted finishs. AImportance of public transitThe usage of public transit is a cardinal to community engagement, productiveness, and independency for older grownups, particularly those who can no longer drive or unable to drive. popular theodolite services, which include coachs and trains, are often their lone options for going independently to make for, wellness attention installations, shopping Centres, and a host of other finishs outside their places ( Marston, Golledge, & A Costanzo, 1997 McPherson & A Wister, 2008 TCAIM, 2009 ) . Transportation system must be present in a assortment of signifiers to run into the demands of older grownups. Aside from render coachs, trains and other specialised theodolite services, proper pavements with allude signage and without barriers to walking are besides indispensable for seniors. Once transit services are available, seniors must besides be able to entree it easy and condomly. Public transit besides helps to get the break off of hold in state of affairss where seniors reside far from urban centres or where communities have few available installations and services. For older grownups, the ability to utilize transit is both a agency and an terminal a agency to entree services and installations while fulfilling their desire non to be insulate ( Hodge, 2008 ) .Challenges in utilizing public transit and attendant impacts to older grownupsSeniors frequently face challenges in utilizing public theodolite which is brought approximately by their physical dam ages and the personal panache the environment is constructed. It is noted that older grownups constitute a important proportion of people with some type of damage or disablement in congress to transit demands ( TRB, 2004 ) . These damages frequently have serious deductions in footings of mobility and entree to chances in the metropolis. An issue linked in urban countries concerns heightening handiness to transit usage among older grownups without compromising arcticty given that physical jobs tend to increase as one ages ( Titheridge, Achuthan, Mackett, & A Solomon, 2009 ) . Older adult females further remain firm dual favoritism in utilizing public transit both on the evidences of gender and damage ( Venter, et Al. 2002 ) .The fact that public conveyance exists is of class merely one portion of the image. Existing roadways, prosaic installations at Michigans and Stationss, and mass-transit vehicles were by and large non blueprinted with the aged in head. Rather, they are bas ed on a normal individual-one presuming that the exploiter is an able-bodied and to the full literate single. Public transit usage requires physical and cognitive abilities that may except some seniors such as the walking distance needed to the coach halt or Metro station are long and/or involve steep inclines. Reliability of theodolite agendas, long waiting times, the demand to mount high stepss in and out of the coach, and, transit driver s competency in suiting senior riders are among the challenges that older grownups materialise in utilizing public transit. There is a demand to affect upon transit applied scientists and contrivers, policy shapers, urban contrivers and theodolite suppliers the importance of the one-size-does-not-fit-all premiss refering the proviso of transit services and substructure. In peculiar, these decision-makers have a duty to develop a better apprehension of the features of older people on the footing of which betterments can be made.Guaranting that older grownups are able to be nomadic with comparative easiness in metropoliss will be one of the cardinal challenges for contrivers as the urban population grows older. Declining mobility among seniors can be explained by many cistrons including physical ( Dis ) abilities, fiscal resources, and personal picks, but the design of their vicinities and the distances between finishs can besides act upon their travel picks and behaviors. Decades of transit and land usage supply that favoured the car over other mobility manners like walking or public transit is a major factor that can put limitations on the mobility of seniors who do non drive, or seldom do so ( Cao, Mokhtarian, & A Handy, 2007 Hodge, 2008 ) . Furthermore, the inability to entree to public transit would take to lower chances of traveling outside the place. For those who used to drive, releasing their driver s licence have a higher hazard of depression peculiarly older work forces ( McPherson & A Wister, 2008 ) . The se issues necessarily lead to their exclusion from making desired finishs and activities and to socially link with other people outside their places which in bend could lend to humiliation in their quality of life.3 Transportation system options to suit older grownupsEven though the car is the vehicle of pick for making assorted finishs, communities across Canada are work hard to run into the transit demands of seniors who no longer thrust or have limited their drive to the daylight, the vicinity, or a individual finish. Given the public press demand for more antiphonal and sustainable transit services, local and national transit bureaus have developed a figure of alternate manners to run into the travel demands of older grownups. The undermentioned summarizes the mix of transit options that would provide their demands ( insert beginnings ) Car individual rider, shared drivePublic transit low-floor coachs, community birds, trains/subwaysDemand-responsive para-transit servicesPriv ate theodolite taxis, limousines, chauffer servicesSpecialized theodolite hospital-based theodolite plans, interfaith and church-based plans, volunteer transit plansOther options low-speed vehicles, walking4 Current province of theodolite proviso for older grownups in MontrealThe Societe de Transport de Montreal ( STM ) which is the chief theodolite bureau of the island has geared itself in bettering the whole public transit system to run into the demands of the population. STM has pick out a corporate policy on cosmopolitan handiness in order to cut down the figure of barriers forestalling people with functional damages from utilizing its public theodolite web ( STM, 2009b ) . The Master Plan of the City of Montreal purposes to heighten the perceptual experience and image of public transit in order to come along its usage ( Ville.de.Montreal, 2002 ) . Public infinites around tube, commuter train and intermodal Stationss, peculiarly the waiting countries, warrant particular attend ing to ease entree and make a safe and pleasant environment that meets the demands of every type of user. Action 14 of the Master Plan farther emphasized design rules in the locality of public transit entree points peculiarly in footings of easing connexions between coachs and tube. Implementing cosmopolitan handiness policies is one manner of advancing societal inclusion in the usage of public transit and entree to edifices. The Transportation Plan of Montreal besides mentioned cosmopolitan entree as a system-wide construct which is apparent through the deployment of articulated or low-floor coachs and supplying on-demand para-transit services ( Transport Adapte ) for frail seniors and other riders with functional damages.In 2008, STM launched a specialised coach service in August 2008 called Navette Or ( florid Shuttle ) . This shuttle service now operates in 10 distinct vicinities in Montreal and makes Michigans at locations nigh high concentrations of older people ( including seniors abodes ) every post good as at locations deemed to be of involvement to them ( STM, 2011 ) . This service is a positive measure that should greatly profit older people. Likewise, STM has late retrofitted volt Metro Stationss along the orange line that are now accessible for wheelchair users ( STM, 2009a ) . Bonaventure station on the green line, meanwhile, is partly accessible ( i.e. from train platform to extremity ) . Supplying accessible Stationss from this theodolite line linking to the belowground metropolis is still under reappraisal and consideration.Despite these developments, much of the attempts are directed towards helping those who wishing personal mobility and are wheelchair-bound. Covering with this most desperate and seeable group represents merely one section of the population with functional damages. Small attending has been compensable to the demands of other mobility-impaired groups, including those who are blind or visually impaired and persons with other physical damages such as those with larning troubles still encounter restraints in utilizing the public transit ( Marston, et al. , 1997 ) .An emerging concern in transit services in Montreal are the migratory seniors in ethno-cultural communities who face troubles in talking either English or Gallic. The Alliance diethylstilbestrols Communautes Culturelles pour lEgalite dans la Sante et lupus erythematosuss Services Sociaux ( ACCESS ) reported that 88.3 per centum of the migratory seniors reside in the greater Montreal country ( Delgado, 2011 ) . The ability to pass on with coach or para-transit drivers or even name STM s client service could be a important challenge for them in order to utilize public transit services.4 Interventions and strength-based attack to pass through provisoPractice rulesSeniors should be included in all facets of transit proviso, from the conceptualisation, design, execution, monitoring and rating.AdvocacyAuthorization to better mobility and handin essGuaranting walkability of streetsGuaranting safety of theodoliteWhat do users state about their impacts?Expression at remarks in Transport subdivision at Montreal Gazette onlineBenefits and challenges of theodolite issues placeThe planning of land utilizations and transit can greatly act upon handiness. By puting parametric quantities for the physical design of urban scenes, these countries of activity define what is possible and what is non within the physical environment. Integrating cosmopolitan handiness ( or cosmopolitan design ) has accordingly become an of import consideration in edifice, urban design and planning in general ( Audirac, 2008 Bromley, Matthews, & A Thomas, 2007 Iwarsson & A Stahl, 2003 ) . Universal design aims to simplify life for persons of all ages, sizes, and abilities by doing the bing and future built environment and merchandises useable by more people. Guaranting accessible installations are installed aids in run intoing the demands of the older grownups every bit good as persons with reduced mobility by leting a big proportion of the population to go independently than would otherwise be the instance ( Malo & A Berube , 1992 ) . There are many ways in which betterments in the design of public conveyance with attending to the older grownups can in bend benefit the general population. This might include improved clearer word pictures of the border between roadways and prosaic infinite, well-built and decently maintained pathwaies without any broken or uneven surfaces, good marks with universally-intelligible icons and if text is necessary clear, big, brooding inscription in an easy-to-read fount, and of class, safe and user-friendly public conveyance.5 Proposed attacks to better transit services for older grownupsInformation and counsel must be sought from human services bureaus and theodolite plans that provide transit to shopping and banking countries, clinics, senior Centres and retirement communities to guarantee tha t the appropriate conveyance options are provided for seniors. One may ask about any voluntary driver plans in the country every bit good so that one can happen committed voluntaries who are willing to portion their vehicles in traveling to and from different finishs. Additionally, auto pooling and bird services are other options for the seniors to avail of free drives to medical Centres and such. The authorities must besides guarantee that cab services would be given at decreased rates for senior citizens. There are besides medical and nonmedical place attention services that frequently offer transit and aid services to older members of society. By offering better transit options for senior citizens, they would be able to bask greater mobility and freedom.Proposed attacksJudaic Edward Estlin Cummingss centre theodolite planCar-pooling and car-sharing plansPooling riders traveling in the same wayAppellation of prioritized seating for seniorsEvaluationGuaranting airing by STM on feed back from different theodolite users6 DecisionThe age population is swelling quickly in both absolute and relative footings in Montreal and Canada, in general, and is expected to make so in the long tally. This understandably poses of import challenges for the authorities and society as a whole. On the positive side, the economic growing and up criterions of life that have well improved duration of service rates of the people in general. Yet older people face physical, economic, and psychological barriers to go for some aged this includes damages in motor, sensory, and cognitive abilities. To get the better of these barriers and to let older people to play a full portion in society, we have to basically rethink attacks to transit in the two states. As a whole, puting an docket by developing enabling environments for older people is both an economic and a societal jussive mood. Safety and handiness are two of import considerations in planing and bettering transit for the aged. Our social duty of run intoing older people s demands in a safe, accessible, and sustainable manner entails integrating cosmopolitan handiness ( or design ) principles in the whole transit environment.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Self-placement is basically when companies place their own products on a position outlet or place. Consumers apply differing buying habits and different reactions towards products. Self-placement has a very important doing on sales and consider of consumers which it tends to attract. We are dealing in a field of perfect competition in which producers and consumers all have to fight between a lot of products and what prices to sell them and buy them on, but the most(prenominal) important subject is to where to provide the products so as to make sure that sales are being done in the way they are supposed to.There are by all odds effects Of self-placement on battle buying products and sales. Consumers have different priorities but some things as very common which have to be bought from a particular place or a particular outlet, especially when it comes to habitual buying products then consumers have two things in their minds, number one is the price they have to pay all the time and number two which place they will get it from. Rational consumer will have a different buying behaviour than a person who is versatile and keeps on changing his, her priorities all the time.The effects can be significant leading to a jump in the number of sales or decline in the number of sales. Therefore we have two extremes to discuss. Self-placement may trigger a rational consumer to purchase the product from a particular place or not to purchase it. First of all discussing the positive effects, consumers have a wide variety of products to choose from and can slowly relate with the product at any place . A rational consumers very consistent with buying a habitual product so will prefer which ever place he or she will be getting it from.Different theories have taken this relationship in different way so we will be discussing in accordance with some buying behaviors and how they will be affecting sales. Ethical consumers are most concerned with how products are located and h ow they are presented. Increase in the number of sales will be only be experienced when consumers will be satisfied with the item they necessity to purchase. Some theories assume that culture has a lot of impact on how people react to self-placement done by companies. Consumes consumption is the most important versatile which will depict the number of sales every time. Components to be mentioned Theoretical Framework Research Question Hypothesis Objectives problem Statement The two most important variables which we have to discuss here are habitual eying behavior and sales, therefore we will draw a connection between these two things with the jockstrap of a presentation. Independent variable is self- placement and their dependent variable is sales. Research Question Following is some question which we will be dealing with What is the effect of self-placement on the sales of an habitual product ?
Monday, May 20, 2019
A controversial debate that has existed for many years, and will credibly still be argued for many years to come, is the relatively close relationship that bearing and Art has. state in both the make and invention industries (or as some artists like to call art creative activity) suck very mixed discernments and ideas on the collaboration of fashion and art and how one may cultivate the other in the labor we live in today.Art is Art and spurt is an industry, as quoted from in Michael Boodros Art and Fashion (2007), he believes that Fashion is just a man do craze that has only been popularised by the many followers in public that be cloned to consume the ideas of fashion. Boodro excessively believes that fashion comes with no illusions attached He believes that there isnt a depth to fashion as there is in art, he believes art is an academia with vast depths of knowledge involved as to fashion, which is a shallow and very monochrome in its appearance, with no hidden messa ges.He goes on to explain that the interest in fashions first started in the late 1800s/early 1900s when only the rich and wealthy could afford ar cardinalrk, in a form of portraits, thusly these painters created amplify fashions in this paintings, learning the art of drapery and how to describe fabrics in the best possible light, For example Gustav Klimt, portraits of women, designed dresses that were more prominent than his subjects.Following on from this, Boodro then goes on to highlight some interesting links between art and fashion in how the artists has eer formed the inspiration for the designer, such as Valentino has taken black and white geometric motifs from the Viennese artists Josef Hoffman and Koloman Mosen and embroided them in sequins and dresses Many other examples there to highlight that a key to a designers success is by winning inspiration from previous art work by innovative and creative artists, which supports Boodros opinion that fashion is a follower an d a form of art. frock were placed in an extra-artistic sphere- where the most part they have remained. This is taken from a contrasting piece of writing from Fashion and Art by L. Svendsen (2006). As you female genital organ see, the Title Fashion and Art is a reverse to Boodros Art and fashion, this is because, as quoted above, Clothes (fashion) were placed in an extra-artistic sphere, meaning that he sees Fashion as a seperate category to Art, and not a branched off form of art itself.Svendsen has a much more equal opinion for both sides of the opinion, he can pick out where Art and Fashion do merge into one, and to a fault how Fashion has separated itself from art. He stated that in the early 1900s, Fashion was very limited and boundaries were severe due to Freedom was rather restricted, as the creations had to appeal to the aesthetic preferences of the customer.Even though artists and art critics will strongly dis chalk up that Fashion is a form of Art, even iconic designers such as Paul Poiret, one of the first iconic fashion designers of the early 20th Century stated I am an artist, not a modiste, designers hated how critics would limit their title to just a dressmaker, limiting their skills and talents instead of creative s that they dream to be acclaimed for.Another controversial quote though from a famous designer, Martin Margiela who insists that fashion is a craft, not art Moving into the 1920s and 30s with the Cubism perception in artwork replacing realism, Fashion also in turn started to become more abstarct, and this was when Haute Couture was born, designs became more elaborate and the previous boundaries that existed were lifted, giving designers a vast playground in which they could experience with their work and ideas.Many Fashion Designers have used strategies normally associated with contemporary art rather than the world of fashion, by creating clothes that are better suited to exhibitions in galleries and museums than for actual wearT his shows a great link between fashion and art, it was evolving to become so abstract and outrageous that the best way for them to be displayed to their best potential was in galleries and museums, the same way as artwork would be, For example now in Museums such as the capital of Seychelles and Albert in London, there is now Fashion Archives, and many international designers have homed themselves there for one-off elaborate exhibitions.To close up I think that I would categorise Fashion as a form of art, but not a direct result of art, I think many people have similar opinions of the two because they are such broad topics with an almost unlimited amount of space for creativity. I do agree that some of fashions many boffo collections and campaigns stemmed from the innovative ideas of previous artists but some of the more successful fashion moments have been solely down to the creative minds of the designer If I had to categorize the fashion industry and the Designers work, I would place it under craftsmanship and creativity, as previously quoted by Martin Margiela. To finalise though I believe that art and fashion shouldnt be labelled and the two should be able to knit to create magical and awe-inspiring pieces.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
All regenerate, Damon verbalise as he and Elena reached middling and Meredith. instanter comes the hard part.Meredith looked up at him. Now comes?Yes. The re exclusivelyy hard part. Damon had in the long run unzipped his mysterious black leather bag. Look, he said in a bare murmur, this is the toyual Gate that we find to get through. And while were doing it, you can throw away all the hysterics you want because youre supposed to be captives. He pul direct out a number of pieces of rope.Elena, Meredith, and Bonnie had drawn together in an automatic show of velociraptor sisterhood.What, Meredith said slowly, as if to rejoin Damon the final benefit of somewhat tarriance doubt, are those ropes for?Damon put his head to wizard locating in an oh-come-on gesture. Theyre for tying your runs.For what?Elena was amazed. She had never seen Meredith so whileifestly angry. She herself couldnt even get a word in. Meredith had walked up and was looking at Damon from a distance of r oughly four inches.And her eyeball are gray some distant part of Elenas mind exclaimed in astonishment. Deep, deep, deep, get in gray gray. All this term Ive fantasy they were br bear, and theyre not.Meanwhile Damon was looking faintly alarmed at Merediths expression. A T. rex would have looked alarmed at Merediths expression, Elena thought.And you expect us to walk around with our hands tied up? While you do what?While I act as your master, Damon said, suddenly rallying with a glorious smile that was gone almost before it was thither. The hold up of you are my slaves.There was a ample, long silence.Elena waved the entire pile of objects a delegacy with a gesture. We wont do that, she said simply. We wont. There has to be some some other way Do you want to rescue Stefan or not? Damon de earthly concernded suddenly. There was a searing foment in the dark look he had fixed on Elena.Of course I do Elena flashed tail end, feeling heat in her cheeks. But not as a slave, drag ged along rotter youThats the only way reality get into the Dark Dimension, Damon said flatly. Tied or chained, as a vampires or kitsunes or demons property.Meredith was tingle her head. You never told us I told you that you wouldnt bid the way inEven while answering Meredith, Damons eyeball never left Elena. Underneath his outward coldness, he appeared to be pleading with her to understand, she thought. In the old days, she thought, hed have just lounged against a wall and raised his eyebrows and said, Fine I didnt want to go eitherway. Whos for a pushover?But Damon did want them to go, Elena realized. He was desperate for them to go. He just didnt k straightway either honest way of conveying that. The only way he k refreshing was to You have to make us a promise, Damon, she said, looking him duty absent in the eyes. And it has to be before we make the decision to go or not.She could see the relief in his eyes, even if to the other girls it might seem as if his face wa s perfectly cold and impassive. She knew he was iris she wasnt saying that her previous decision was final, and that was that. What promise? Damon asked.You have to swear to give your word that no affaire what we decide now or in the Dark Dimension, you wont try to Influence us. You wont put us to quietude by mind control, or nudge us to do what you want. You wont use any vampire tricks on our minds.Damon wouldnt be Damon if he didnt argue. But, look, suppose the time comes when you want me to do that? There are some things there that it might be better for you to sleep through Then well tell you weve changed our minds, and well release you from the promise. You see? Theres no d avow placement. You just have to swear.All right, Damon said, still holding her gaze. I swear I wont use any kind of Power on your minds I wont Influence you in any way, until you ask me to. I give my word.Right. At cash in ones chips Elena broke the stare down with the tiniest of smiles and nods. And Damon gave her an almost imperceptible nod in return.She off away to find herself looking into Bonnies searching brown gaze.Elena, Bonnie whispered, tugging on her arm. Come here for a sec, okay? Elena could scarcely help it. Bonnie was strong as a scurvy Welsh pony. Elena went, roll a powerless look over her shoulder at Damon as she did.What? she whispered when Bonnie finally stopped dragging her. Meredith had come along as well, figuring it might be sisterhood business. easy?Elena, Bonnie burst out, as if unable to hold the spoken language back any longer, the way you and Damon act its different than it used to be. You didnt used toI mean, what really happened between you twain when you were alone together?This is hardly the time for that, Elena hissed. Were having a big problem here, in case you hadnt noticed.But what if Meredith as well ask up the unfinished sentence, get-up-and-go a dark lock of hair out of her eyes. What if its something Stefan doesnt like? Like wh at happened with Damon when you were alone in the motel that night? she finished, quoting Bonnies words.Bonnies communicate fell open. What motel? What night? What happened? she almost shrieked, causing Meredith to try to quiet her and get bitten for her pains.Elena looked at first one and then the other of her two friends the two friends who had come to die with her if necessary. She could feel her breath come short. It was so unfair, butCan we just discuss this later? she suggested, onerous to convey with her eyes and eyebrows Damon can receive usBonnie merely whispered, What motel? What night? What Elena gave up. Nothing happened, she said flatly. Meredith is only quoting you, Bonnie. You said those words last night while you were asleep. And maybe sometime in the future youll tell us what youre talking about, because I dont know.She finished by looking at Meredith, who just raised one perfect eyebrow. Youre right, Meredith said, completely undeceived. The slope language co uld use a word like sa. It would make these conversations so much shorter, for one thing.Bonnie sighed. Well, then, Ill find out for myself, she said. You may not telephone I can, but I will.Okay, okay, but slowdown does anyone have anything helpful to say about Damons rope hale?Such as, do we tell him where to stuff it? Meredith suggested under her breath.Bonnie was holding a length of rope. She ran a small, fair-skinned hand over it.I dont think this was bought in anger, she said, her brown eyes unfocusing and her voice taking on the slightly eerie tone it ever much did when she was in trance. I see a boy and a girl, over a counter at a hardware store and shes laughing, and the boy says, Ill bet you anything that youre freeing to school next year to be an architect, and the girl gets all misty-eyed, and says, yes, and And thats all the psychical spying I care to experience today. Damon had come right up to them without making a sound. Bonnie jumped violently, and almost dr opped the rope.Listen, Damon continued harshly, just a hundred meters away is the final crossing. Either you wear these and you act like slaves or you dont get in to help Stefan. Ever. Thats it.Silently, the girls conferred with their eyes. Elena knew that her own expression said clearly that she wasnt asking either Bonnie or Meredith to go with her, but that she herself was going if it required crawling behind Damon on her hands and knees.Meredith, looking directly into Elenas eyes, slowly shut her own and nodded, letting out her breath. Bonnie was nodding her head already, resigned.In silence, Bonnie and Meredith let Elena tie their wrists in front of them. Elena then let Damon tie her wrists and thread a long rope between the three of them, as if they were a chain gang of prisoners.Elena could feel a flush coming up from down the stairs her chest to burn in her cheeks. She couldnt meet Damons eyes, not this way, but she knew without asking that Damon was thinking about the time that Stefan had dismissed him from his apartment like a dog, in front of just this audience, plus Matt.Vengeful cad, Elena thought as hard as she could in Damons direction. She knew the last word would hurt the most. Damon prided himself on being a gentlemanBut gentlemen dont go into the Dark Dimension, Damons voice in her head said mockingly.All right, Damon added aloud, and took the lead rope in one hand. He started walking briskly into the darkness of the cave, the three girls crowding and stumbling behind him.Elena would never forget that brief journey, and she knew neither Bonnie nor Meredith would either. They walked across the shallow opening of the cave and into the small opening in the back, which gaped like a mouth. It took some maneuvering to get the three of them into it. On the other side the cavern flared out again, and they were in a large cavern. At least that was what Elenas enhanced senses told her. The everlasting haze over had returned and Elena had no idea whi ch way they were going.Only a few minutes later a create reared up out of the thick fog.Elena didnt know what she had been expecting from the Demon Gate. Possibly huge ebony doors, carved with serpents and incrust with jewels. Maybe a rough-hewn, weathered colossus of stone, like the Egyptian pyramids. Perhaps even some severalize of futuristic energy field that flickered and flashed with blue-violet lasers.What she saw instead looked like a ramshackle depot of some kind, a place for holding and shipping goods. There was an empty pen, heavily fenced, topped with barbed wire. It stank, and Elena was sword lily that she and Damon had not channeled power to her nose.Then there were people, men and women in fine clothes, each with a rudimentary in one hand, murmuring something before opening a door in one side of the building. The same door but Elena would bet anything that they werent all going to the same place, if the keys were like the one she had before long borrowed from Sh inichis house a week or so ago. One of the ladies looked as if she were dressed for a deception masquerade, with shed ears that blended into her long auburn hair. It was only when Elena saw under her ankle-length dress the swishing of a fox tail that she realized that the woman was a kitsune making use of the Demon Gate.Damon hastily and none too gently led them to the other side of the building, where a broken-hinged door opened into a dilapidated elbow room that, strangely, seemed larger on the inside(a) than on the outside. All sorts of things were being bartered or sold here some(prenominal) looked as if they had to do with the management of slaves.Elena, Meredith, and Bonnie looked at one another, round-eyed. Obviously, people bringing wild slaves in from the outside considered torture and terror all in a days work.Passage for four, Damon said briefly to the slump-shouldered but heavyset man behind the counter.Three savages all at once? The man, eyes devouring what he cou ld see of the three girls, turned to look at Damon suspiciously.What can I say? My job is to a fault my hobby. Damon stared him straight in the eyes.Yeh, but The man laughed. Lately we bin gettin maybe one or two a month.Theyre legally mine. No kidnappings. Kneel, Damon added casually to the three girls.It was Meredith who got it first and sank to the ground like a ballet dancer. Her dark, dark gray eyes were focused on something no one but she could see. Then Elena in some manner untangled the single syllable from the others. She focused her mind on Stefan and pretended she was kneeling to kiss him on his prison pallet. It seemed to work she was down.But Bonnie was up. The most dependent, the softest, the most innocent member of the triumvirate found that her knees had gone solid.Redheads, eh? the man said, eyeing Damon sharply even as he smirked. Maybe youd better buy a little tingler for that one.Maybe, Damon said tightly. Bonnie just looked at him blankly, looked at the girls on the ground and then threw herself into a prostrate position. Elena could encounter her sobbing softly. But Ive found that a firm voice and a disapproving look genuinely work better.The man gave up and slumped again. Passage for four, he grunted and reached up and pulled on a dirty buzzer rope. By this time Bonnie was weeping in fear and humiliation, but no one seemed to notice, moreover the other girls.Elena didnt dare to try to comfort her telepathically that wouldnt fit in with the aura of a normal mankind girl at all, and who knew what traps or devices might be hidden here in addition to the man who kept undressing them over and over with his eyes? She just wished she could call up one of her Wings attacks, right here in this room. That would wipe the smug look off the mans face.A moment later, something else wiped it off as completely as she could have desired. Damon leaned across the counter and whispered something to him that turned the slumped mans leering face a sick ly color of green.Did you hear what he said? Elena communicated this to Meredith using her eyes and eyebrows.Meredith, her own eyes crinkling, positioned her hand in front of Elenas abdomen, then made a twisting, ripping motion.Even Bonnie smiled.Then Damon led them to wait outside the depot. They had only been standing a few minutes when Elenas new vision uneven a boat gliding silently through the mist. She realized that the building must be on the very bank of a river, but even with Power directed totally to her eyes she could scantily make out where the nonreflective land gave way to shining water, and even with Power directed solely to her ears she could barely hear the sound of swift deep water running.The boat stopped somehow. Elena couldnt see any anchor dropped or anything to fasten it to. But the fact was that it did stop, and the slumped man put down a plank, which stayed in place as they boarded first Damon, and then his bevy of slaves.On board, Elena watched Damon wo rdlessly offer six pieces of gold to the ferryman two for each human who presumably wouldnt be coming back, she thought.For a moment she was lost in the memory of being very young only three or so, she must have been and school term on her fathers lap while he read to her from a wonderfully illustrated book about the Hellenic myths. It told about the ferryman, Charon, who took spirits of the deceased over the river Styx to the land of the dead. And her father telling her that the Greeks put coins on the eyes of those who died so they could pay the ferryman.Theres no coming back from this journey she thought suddenly and violently. No evade They might as well be truly dead.Strangely, it was horror that saved her from this morass of terror. dear as she lifted her head, perhaps to scream, the dim figure of the ferryman turned from his duties briefly as if to look back over the passengers. Elena heard Bonnies shriek. Meredith, shaking, was frantically and illogically reaching fo r the bag in which her gun was stowed. Even Damon didnt seem to be able to move.The tall specter in the boat had no face.He had deep depressions where his eyes should be, a shallow hollow for a mouth, and a triangular hole where his nose should have protruded. The weird horror of it, on top of the stink from the depot pens, was simply too much for Bonnie, and she slumped sideways, limp against Meredith, in a faint.Elena, in the midst of her terror, had a moment of revelation. In the dim, moist, dripping twilight, she had forgotten to stop trying to use all her senses to their fullest. She was undoubtedly better able to see the inhuman face of the ferryman than, say, Meredith. She could also hear things, like the sounds of long-dead miners tapping at the rock above them, and the scurrying of enormous bats or cockroaches or something, inside the stone walls all around them.But now, Elena suddenly felt warm tears on her glacial cheeks as she realized that she had completely underesti mated Bonnie for as long as shed known about her friends psychic powers. If Bonnies senses were permanently open to the kinds of horrors Elena was experiencing now, it was no wonder that Bonnie lived in fear. Elena found herself promising to be a hell of a lot more tolerant the next time Bonnie faltered or started screaming. In fact, Bonnie deserved some kind of an award for keeping a grip on sanity this far, Elena decided. But Elena didnt dare do any more than gaze at her friend, who was completely unconscious, and swear to herself that from now on Bonnie would find a champion in Elena Gilbert.That promise and the warmth of it burned like a candle in Elenas mind, a candle she pictured held by Stefan, the light of it dancing in his green eyes and playing over the planes of his face. It was just enough to keep her from losing her own sanity on the rest of the journey.By the time the boat docked at a place just slightly more traveled than the one where they had embarked all three o f the girls were in a state of exhaustion brought on by prolonged terror and wrenching suspense.But they hadnt really used the time to think over the words Dark Dimension or to imagine the number of ways its darkness might be manifested.Our new home, Damon said grimly. Watching him instead of the landscape, Elena realized from the tension in his neck and shoulders that Damon was not enjoying himself. Shed thought hed be heading into his own particular paradise, this world of human slaves, and torture for entertainment, whose only rule was self-preservation of the individual ego. Now she realized that she had been wrong. For Damon this was a world of beings with Powers as great or greater than his own. He was going to have to claw out a foothold here among them, just like any urchin on the path except that he couldnt afford to make any mistakes. They indispensable to find a way not just to live, but to live in luxury and mingle with high society, if they were to have any guess to rescue Stefan.Stefan no, she couldnt allow herself the luxury of thinking about him at that time. Once she started she would become undone, begin to expect ridiculous things, like that they go round to the prison, just to stare at it, like a jr. high kid with a crush on an older boy, who just wanted to be impelled by his house to worship it. And then what would that do to their plans for a jailbreak later? Plan A was dont make mistakes, and Elena would stick to that until she found a better one.That was how Damon and his slaves came to the Dark Dimension, through the Demon Gate. The smallest one needed to be revived with water in the face before she could get up and walk.