Saturday, August 31, 2019
The biological approach can be used to explain many thing within health and social care, it can also be useful in diagnosing and treating service users, and is effective for practitioners to asses and help their patience within heath care and social care alike. The biological approach can have a positive impact on the service user because tests such as the assessment scale are available so that they can fully understand why there behaviour is the way it is, and also what is normal and abnormal for their age. It is useful for practitioners to know if the influence of genetics has anything to do with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour so that they can give the service user the best possible help and attention. Genetic testing is also useful; it has potential benefits whether the results are positive or negative for a gene mutation. Test results can provide a sense of relief from uncertainty and help people make informed decisions about managing their health care. For example, a negative result can eliminate the need for unnecessary check-ups and screening tests in some cases. A positive result can direct a person toward available prevention, monitoring, and treatment options. Some test results can also help people make decisions about having children. New-born screening can identify genetic disorders early in life so treatment can be started as early as possible. A social care worker could use the assessment scale effectively on children to determine whether or not they have additional needs that need to be dealt with such as a learning disability, however once that child has being diagnosed with this problem the biological approach doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t then tell the practitioner how to treat or help that child, this is because every childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are slightly different and there are a wide range of problems that need different treatment for. Also the assessment scale wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be useful within the health care sector for example caring for an adult with clinical depression, the assessment scale Is very limited and therefore is only useful within a small area of health and social care. However a service user with severe depression would benefit from the biological approach by focusing on genetic testing and medication. Depression is thought to involve both genetic and environmental factors, with genetics playing a larger role in the type of depression that is severe and recurrent, and a study has identified a region of DNA that may include a gene or genes that affect an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability to severe persistent depression. From this research biological physiologists can make a clearÃ link between genes and depression and can then advice patience on the best possible method of improving their health. On a wider scale of health and social care hormones and brain activity can be used to explain why people behave in certain ways and how it can affect their everyday lives or others around them for example a patient with a brain damage, the biological approach explains why and how the person may react and how that particular injury effects their behavior. There are many strengths of the biological approach one strength is that this approach is supported by recent accurate research. Our understanding of genetics and the structure of human genes may be used as support, together with all the medical techniques, such as MRI, to show exactly how the brain and its chemicals affect our behaviour. For example, scans can show which part of the brain are active during a particular behaviour, which would help us to develop therapy. Another benefit of the biological perspective is that it has a high success rate in treatment. For example, someone might be given an antidepressant drug and might begin to feel better. Whether its medication or less common biological treatments, like therapy or Biofeedback; modern biological treatments have shown to be successful at treating mental illness, particularly in patients who do not respond well to talk therapy. .Despite this, it ignores the profound effect environment can have on people. For example, what if a patient is depressed because of personal problems such as losing his job, or death in a family. These are situations that can play a role in whether or not a person is feeling depressed., the biological perspective is often seen as limited, since it neglects other possible causes for behaviour, the impact of different cultural upbringings, mental states, and emotional desires. For example, it focuses too much on the Ã¢â¬ËnatureÃ¢â¬â¢ side of the nature/nurture debate. It argues that behavior is caused by hormones and genetics. One theory is that schizophrenia is genetic; however, twin studies show that it is not completely genetic and the environment has a part to play.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The demand on application of advanced engineering in building industry necessitates uninterrupted employment of new engineering work force and geting of latest machinery. A building house would necessitate a immense investing in order to last in acquiring new occupations. Therefore, really frequently, a building undertaking is managed by a general contractor, which sublet the plants out to different subcontractors so that the general contractor can salvage on building cost to vie in monetary value [ 1 ] Subcontractors are specialist in the executing of a specific occupation, they act as a agents of the production system of the contractor company in providing stuffs, work force, equipment, tools or designs [ 2 ] . Chiang [ 1 ] concludes that farm outing is indispensable to salvage building cost of general contractors to vie on monetary value. Teixeira & A ; Couto [ 3 ] besides agreed that increasing of specialization thorugh subcontracting can help in achieving the undertaking objectives. When the range of work and logical dependences between subcontractor plants are non to the full understand by general contractor and proprietors, it became a critical job to the success of complex and fast-paced undertakings. Cost judicial proceeding and disgruntled clients due to the struggle between general contractor, subcontractors and other undertaking participants would so followed [ 4 ]SubcontractorSubcontractor is a common term used in building. Due to the singularity of each building undertaking, the work force is transeunt, multiple trade are involved, each undertakings are planned and worked in short clip frames, and assortment of stuffs and equipments required, one individual building undertaking is frequently sublet to many subcontractors [ 2 ] , [ 5-12 ] . Subcontractors can lend more than 50 % [ 13 ] , and can be every bit much as 90 % of entire undertaking value to a building procedure [ 5 ] . A building undertaking is awarded to a general contractor or premier contractor or chief contractor or chief contractor, which resorts their work out to specialise outside house to transport out specific undertaking activities. General contractors are responsible for pull offing the undertaking such as contract disposal with clients, undertaking funding, stuff and equipment procuring, and supervising the undertaking advancement [ 14 ] . Harmonizing to Albino & A ; Garavelli [ 13 ] , the general contractor Ã¢â¬Ës perfomance are strongly dependent on subcontractors. This statement is reinforced by Mbachu [ 15 ] which stated that the ability of the general contractor and adviser to present the undertaking within clip, quality and cost depends mostly on public presentation of subcontractors. A subcontractor is a building house that contracts with a general contractor to execute some facet of the general contractor Ã¢â¬Ës work. In most building undertakings, a critical function is played by subcontractors who are hired to execute specific undertakings on a undertaking. In the usual instance, the general contractor will execute the basic operations and farm out the balance to assorted forte contractors. Subcontracting is used much more extensively on lodging and edifice building undertakings than on technology and industrial undertakings [ 16 ] .Types of SubcontractorsAttempts have been meade to distinguish subcontractors. In Hong Kong, Ng et Al. [ 6 ] classified subcontractors to ( i ) equipment-intensive subcontractors ( who are hired due to their specialized works and equipments ) , and ( two ) labour-intensive subcontractors ( those who are hired as a consequence of their specialized labour resources. Costantino et Al. [ 17 ] revealed that labour-only subcontractor beneficial the subcontractor by cut downing the cost of mobilisation and buying stuff. Furthermore, it besides offers economic advantages to the general contractor by avoiding the mark-up of full subcontracting. Quality jobs and claims may still happen in acquiring the supply of stuff for application of this labour-only subcontractor. Therefore, some general contractors prefer full subcontracting to switch hazard and liability. Partnering relationship between general contractor and subcontractors were proposed to make a win-win state of affairs [ 5 ] , [ 18 ] . Harmonizing to Lee et Al. [ 18 ] , this long-run relationship must be established to avoid adversarial relationship between general contractor and subcontractor. Several types of relationships between general contractor and subcontractor are discussed, competitory relationships and strategic relationships were among them. Comparison theoretical account based on dealing cost for both general contractor and subcontractor are developed severally for each relationship.Multilayer SubcontractingFurther subcontracting by subcontractor, or called multilayer subcontracting/latent subcontractor, let the subcontractor to be less vulnerable to fluctuation in concern, have more flexibleness in work force coordination, and be able to cut down cost of direction [ 7 ] . In Turkish, pattern of farm outing work by subcontractors to secondary subcontractor is widespread [ 19 ] . A survey on 35 general contractors and 56 subcontractor organisations revealed that most of them are willing to sublease their work under overload of work or clip force per unit area. When Ã¢â¬Å" latent Ã¢â¬ subcontractor happened, the extent of subcontracting is even larger. Ã¢â¬Å" Latent Ã¢â¬ subcontracting, or multilayer subcontracting is the farther farm outing down the watercourse by subcontractors with or without the cognition or consent of the general contractor or client. This has been alleged to be one of the major causes of hapless building quality and building site safety in Hong Kong [ 1 ] , [ 7 ] . Ekstrom et Al. [ 20 ] argues that payment to the 2nd grade subcontractor/suppliers can be portion of the public presentation measuring when measuring subcontractor.Problems of SubcontractingAbility to pass on and organize the work of subcontractors has been identified as one of the chief conceptual determiners of building undertaking direction competency in China [ 21 ] . Subcontractor failure has been listed as one of the hazard allocated to general contractor in building contracts [ 22 ] . This is supported by El-Sayegh [ 23 ] which stated that subcontracting is hazardous and can take to low quality, delayed completion and insecure pattern. Another hazard created by subcontractor is the possibility of them to transgress contract and difference with the general contractor. Hence, subcontracting has been listed as one of the important factors doing hold United Arab Emirates [ 24 ] , [ 25 ] and Malaysia [ 26 ] , [ 27 ] .PERTINENT STUDIES ON SUBCONTRACTORFocus of research workers goes to either finding the components of farm outing or developing new approaches/techniques to choose and/or manage subcontractors. Subcontractor has become an issue on its ain, separated from selection/management of general contractor by client/consultants due to its complexness. Numerous subcontractor choice and monitoring theoretical account has been proposed [ 4 ] , [ 13 ] , [ 28-30 ] .Choice of SubcontractorMany choice methods of subcontractors has been proposed in the literature. Arslan et Al. [ 28 ] developed a web-based subcontractor rating system ( WEBSES ) to ease the choice of subcontractors. The standards for measuring was identified by calculators of building house in USA based on a database of about 4000 subcontractor houses. Ng & A ; Luu [ 31 ] developed a theoretical account for subcontractor enrollment determination through case-based logical thinking attack. 12 experts were interviewed to supply indispensable stairss needed for distinguishing good and bad subcontractors. The theoretical account developed use each properties Ã¢â¬Ë calculated evaluations for designation of fiting instances and similarity mark of each single instances. The historical information of subcontrators can be retrieved and utilize for the current rating. Weighting of all atributes can be easy modified harmonizing to the users penchant, therefore the effectivity of this theoretical account is still really much depends on the experience and cognition of users. Manoharan [ 32 ] proposed a subcontractor choice method utilizing Analytic Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) based on 29 questionnaires collected from contractors involved in building undertakings located at Putrajaya, Malaysia. It is an Adept System to help the chief contractors in doing their determination by utilizing pairwise comparing. The determination shaper will necessitate to do their ain opinion on the comparative importance of each component with regard to the elements at a higher degree. Argument might happen when the opinion of different determination shapers are diverse. As an attempt to cut down the incidents of hold, and other possible jobs that might be originated from the jobs of choosing the incorrect sub-contractor, this survey aims to spread out the sample of survey as suggested by Manoharan [ 32 ] in the attempt of create an more dependable and applicable sub-contractor choice theoretical account.Management of SubcontractorChoosing the right subcontractor does non vouch the success of a building undertaking. Coordination and monitoring of subcontracted work during the building phase is indispensable. Ko et Al. [ 33 ] developed a Sub-contractors Performance Evaluation Model ( SPEM ) by using Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Inference Model ( EFNIM ) . Subcontractors were evaluated by field overseers harmonizing to the types of subcontract. Different rating factors were adopted for different subcontract to accomplish just rating. Albino & A ; Garavelli [ 13 ] proposed a evaluation system for direction of subcontractor by utilizing nervous web. An application instance related to the rating of possible subcontractors viing for a command has been used to demo the practical execution of this nervous web. In accessing the rival subcontractors, the determination shaper have to see five chief parametric quantities, viz. monetary value decrease, clip decrease, technical/qualitative feature of the command, contractual dependability of the rival, and direction accomplishments of the rival. The web will suggest a suited subcontractor based on old determinations made by the expert. Therefore, illustrations of old determinations need the expert to be inserted into this nervous web. Dainty et Al. [ 34 ] focused on supply concatenation Ã¢â¬Ës direction from the position of subcontractor. The function of subcontractors in UK building industry is explored and followed by proposal of a model for turn toing current barriers to provide concatenation integrating.DecisionSubcontractor has become a great topic to all the practicians in building industry due to the common pattern of subleasing building works into smaller bundles in building industry. Effective subcontractor choice and monitoring which can minimise the job would find the success of building companies. Problems of subcontractors, if ignored, can do an huge impact to the building undertaking, and can widen into the operation of the general contractor Ã¢â¬Ës administration. Therefore, attending shall be given to the issues of subcontractor, which is the chief participant in about all the building undertakings.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
After various writings by Richard Rodriguez and Octavio Paz, I have come across several realizations. Who am I? Should I be a part of a nation and a Ã¢â¬Å"systemÃ¢â¬ that does not value me, or should I be a part of a nation that does not acknowledge my existence? The United States as a nation does not value me, and Mexico does not even know that I exist. These are difficult matters to discuss. We are all in search of our own identity. However, some of us are placed in a situation that makes it very difficult and confusing to know or understand. I have always asked myself, Ã¢â¬Å"Who am I? Ã¢â¬ I should put it in more crude words, Ã¢â¬Å"Where do I belong? Ã¢â¬ After this specific question is asked, I begin to realize that I have problems coming up with a response. My parents were born in Mexico, and thus, they are Mexican. Sometimes I feel I belong here in the United States, but other times I feel more attached to Mexico. I am a Mexican-American. However, I feel that I am denying in some way my heritage and my culture by saying that I am. I am denying my parents. I say that IÃ¢â¬â¢m Mexican because in a sense I am. I am also an American. I am a Mexican-American. What do these terms put together imply? They should imply that the person is Mexican and American. The term Ã¢â¬Å"Mexican-AmericanÃ¢â¬ is the very reason why I find myself confused about who I really am. I need to search for my own identity, which leads me to the purpose of this essay. Rodriguez and Paz have discussed this particular problem of identity. All three have different viewpoints. Some of their ideas are similar but mostly contradictory, especially in the case of Rodriguez and Paz. As I was reading, I was able to relate to what they had to say, and in a much bigger sense, I was able to understand and know who I am. I was able to find my self. According to Paz, self-discovery is most than anything realizing that we are alone. Paz argues that our being or our identity becomes a problem and a question. It becomes a problem because of several reasons. We just donÃ¢â¬â¢t simply wake up one day and realize that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know who we are. There are individuals who are placed in difficult situations that allow for these questions to arise. For example, the migration of Mexicans to the United States is a situation that will definitely cause many to question their identity. I agree because if we had not moved to the United States, I would simply consider myself a Mexican without a doubt. Paz strongly argues that different circumstances are likely to produce different reactions. This migration is a circumstance that will bring about confusion among the Mexicans about who they really are. It is ironic how a few miles can bring about such a change in you. Personally, I have experiences such a confusion by simply moving twenty miles North of where I lived. I lived in Reynosa since I was eight. Then, my family and I moved here to McAllen. At the beginning, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel quite like you fit. It makes it very difficult because it is a completely different world. Even though the majority of the people are of Mexican origin, it still makes it very hard. After the years, I became somewhat used to the life here and began to feel comfortable. However, I also began to question my identity. It is the moment we cross that border that we lose our identity. Paz argues that instead of asking ourselves questions, we should do something about it. We cannot go on contemplating who we are, rather, we should work with our situation and do something. Our questions are only an excuse for not facing reality. I agree with Paz because sometimes, we continue to complain and complain and simply think about our present situation. However, we do nothing to change it. I believe that Mexican-Americans need to stop talking about our injustices and discrimination and do something. However, Paz does mention that Mexicans have an inferiority complex. We begin to doubt our own abilities. This happens because of our culture. We are taught to listen and stay quiet. On the other hand, Anglo-Americans are taught to voice their opinions. There are many differences in both the Anglo-American culture and Mexican culture. These differences are the reason why it is impossible to blend or mix. We are brought into a culture that is the complete opposite of ours. This is the reason why Paz says that our Ã¢â¬Å"MexicanismÃ¢â¬ simply floats. It never exists, and it never goes away. One of the ways we react to this situation is by flaunting our differences. Paz talks about pachucos. They are a group of people of Mexican origin that are known for their language, behavior, and clothing. I remember when I went to high school and we had a pep rally, which landed right on September 16, which is MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. A group of friends and I decided to wear red, white, and green to celebrate MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. We were simply proud of being Mexicans and wanted to show our pride. However, there were problems with several of the administrators because it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just my friends and I doing it, but other people as well. The pep rally was canceled because they felt that our clothing would distract and cause conflict with the other Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ students in school. As I was reading Paz, he mentioned that Mexicans dress a certain way to stand out. They know they are rejected by the Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ society. They do this to be different and stand out. The disguise is a protection because it hides and points them out. Somehow, they are doing this to Ã¢â¬Å"belongÃ¢â¬ in some way. They are able to catch the attention of the Anglo-Americans. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with Paz. I believe that sometimes people dress a certain way to show their pride. I do not dress a certain way to be different and so people can notice me. I am proud to be Mexican and want to show it off. When fourth of July comes, I also like to dress in red, white and blue to celebrate AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. Is this possible or am I being a hypocrite? This question leads me to Richard Rodriguez. Richard RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢ Hunger of memory is an autobiography. I was able to read only part of his book. I found it quite fascinating. Rodriguez goes through many problems of identity. He has mixed feelings about his own self. He mainly talks about affirmative action. What does the term Ã¢â¬Å"minority studentÃ¢â¬ mean? Is it something we want to be classified as? I had an experience in high school in which a student denied a part of himself. His mother is Anglo and his father is Mexican. However, throughout school, when it was time to check on the ethnicity, he would check out Anglo. He did this throughout his years in school, but when it was his senior year something happened. He decided to go talk to his counselor and tell her to change all his paperwork. He no longer wanted to be classified as Anglo, but Hispanic. When I heard this, it was very surprising. I cannot understand how this particular person decided to simply become Hispanic just so he could get the benefits of affirmative action. He was applying to scholarships and various universities, and he knew that if he was classified as a minority student, he would receive better benefits. This is not right. You cannot simply choose to be Hispanic for your convenience. You should not reject a part of yourself simply for your own benefits. Rodriguez faced this dilemma. He knew that he did not want to be labeled a minority student, but if this is what was going to get him in society, then he simply had to accept. Throughout life, Rodriguez wondered about his identity. He was criticized by many because he was a well-known writer who was invited as a guest speaker. He would be around Anglo-Americans, and many criticized him because they felt he had become a part of them. Is this really true? IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t your identity how Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬ see yourself? Just because other people see you being around another class or race of people, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that you have become a part of them. You simply know that you are Mexican, American, or Mexican-American, and blending with other cultures doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean you lose your true self. Because of affirmative action, Rodriguez was able to be a guest speaker, and a professor at a university. He felt threatened at times because the felt somewhat alienated by the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ society. Rodriguez did not have a good relationship with the Chicano students. He felt threatened by them. These students were still attached to their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ culture. These students knew how to speak Spanish very well. They were proud of their past. Rodriguez on the other hand, spoke in English. His Spanish was not that well. He did not want to associate himself to a past that meant Ã¢â¬Å"poorÃ¢â¬ . There was one specific time when RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢ parents saw a Hispanic student wearing a sarape. They were very surprised. Rodriguez said that these students were foolish to think themselves unchanged by their schooling. I disagree with Rodriguez because I believe that just because you are getting a higher education and have a good job, you forget that you are Hispanic or Mexican-American. Rodriguez simply wanted to justify his own change. He did not want to belong or keep a bond between a past that did not bring fond memories. He was not as disadvantaged as other Hispanics. However, he felt very strongly about not going to Chicano student meetings or social events sponsored by Ã¢â¬Å"La Raza. Ã¢â¬ I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with him. After reading this, I realized that he is wrong. I am proud to be Mexican-American. I am proud to carry the term Ã¢â¬Å"MexicanÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"American. Ã¢â¬ I am proud of my Mexican culture, customs, and beliefs. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to change in order to succeed or attain a higher education. Rodriguez suddenly came to this realization. He could not simply cast out his culture and simply erase it. At some point, he had a discussion with his several Hispanic students in which he did not agree with them. Soon, he was known to others as being a Ã¢â¬Å"coconut,Ã¢â¬ brown on the outside, white on the inside. I have learned many things this semester. I had not really given much thought Mexican-American history. I never realized about the various things that were discussed. It was an eye opener. I was also able to realize of the many problems and injustices that Hispanics face here in the United States. However, just like Paz said, we cannot simply contemplate these issues. We need to do something about them. I am attending college to receive a higher education. I know that education is extremely important. However, I am not losing my identity by coming to college. Getting an education does not necessarily make you a different person. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. After reading Paz and Rodriguez, I began to see myself in some of what they had to say. I realized that I have gone through a confusion stage. I sometimes donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where I belong or who I am. I have come to the conclusion that I am simply American. America is a nation filled with various ethnic groups. Hispanics include people from Mexico, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, etc. There are also many Asians. I often ask myself why people from Ireland living here in America arenÃ¢â¬â¢t labeled Irish-American. They are simply American. Why then should we be labeled Mexican-American? CantÃ¢â¬â¢ we simply be called American? I have come to the conclusion that I am American. American can mean different things to different people. To me American means being a part of Mexico as well as the United States. I consider myself a lucky person. I am able to be have the best of both worlds: Mexico and the United States. Tomorrow, I will celebrate MotherÃ¢â¬â¢s Day here in the United States and Monday it will be 10 de mayo, Dia de las Madres in Mexico. My mom is very lucky. She gets two gifts. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that I am being a hypocrite by doing this. These are some of the advantages of being American.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
A Step Up Speech For a 14 Year Old (Student Government) - Essay Example But it never perturbed me because I had amazing mentors around me. They always guided me and encouraged me whenever I consulted them. With each passing year I am becoming more responsible and confident and this is due to the support of the teachers of my school. I will never forget the efforts and love of Ms. Miller and Mr. Neilson who have always been there whenever I needed them. They have always been appurtenance to me who give strength and bring out the best in me and improve my capabilities. Respected Sir and Madam I respect you and will always admire your efforts. Thank you for your love for all these years. My mother has always been hortative. It is due to her support and kindness that I have been able to come this far. Now that I am being promoted to the next and higher level, I am sure that whatever I have learned from the competent faculty I will utilize it effectively in the next four years. I hope by running for the post of President in high school I will be able to make all of you proud of
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
What do you think the likelihood of success will be for President Obama to implement the remaining items of his agenda - Essay Example Congress members from both fronts of the political divide all have an input in what is to be implemented and what is not. They exercise their power through voting for or against any policy. For any of these items to be implemented, a majority of the Senate members must vote for the item through persuasion and lobbying. The likelihood of President Obama to implement the items of his agenda that are yet to be done is high. The fulfillment of items in his agenda led to the recent up-surge in his approval ratings. President Reagan is an excellent example of a president who was able to push his agenda forward despite all odds. His changes especially in the budget and tax reforms cannot go unnoticed.2 Reagan was successful in his bid to implement his agenda because he possessed the self discipline and clarity required to control the agenda. His strategy was to take on an issue a time rather than to have a full plate that neither he nor congress could handle at a time. President Jimmy Carter, on the other hand, was relatively unsuccessful. This was because the challenge of being president was simply overwhelming. He did not prioritize his agenda laying emphasis on the most urgent ones and lacked enthusiasm. He instead took on everything at a go, and this portrayed him as a man who had no concrete plan for the nation. His style of handling business did not impress Congress
Republicans stand on Stem Cell Vindication - Essay Example Earlier the leaders could easily maintain a fake impression with the people. But with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s media and online facilities, thee public is more than aware and are able to know the in depth truth and hence there is less chance of making false pretences. Nowadays, Democrats have to prove Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Government by the PeopleÃ¢â¬ and republicans Ã¢â¬Å"Government based on lawsÃ¢â¬ . Peoples choice of democrats or the republicans changes instantly with various issues. A human mind is fast changing and a real leader needs to maintain a homeostasis of the things he does to maintain his stance in the minds of people. That is why politics is a tough job. No democrat can be convinced of republican thoughts or vice versa as Laurence J.Peter says - Ã¢â¬Å"A Man convinced against his will is of the same opinion stillÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â A leader still canÃ¢â¬â¢t be so sure of his republican/ democratic ideology can surely fulfill peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes. He does it solely on the hope though he would have a bit of confidence too, as Martin Luther said, Ã¢â¬Å"everything that is done in the world is done by hopeÃ¢â¬ Maybe someone be a democratic or republican, it is his ideology which makes him win and rule over. But still a democrat runs on the ideal of government by the people, of the people and for the people. So he amends laws, bends rules for the people, whereas a republican has laws, human laws as his ideals which are on a global perspective common to all humans. A democrat may bend rules in his country for his peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s sake, but a republican has human ethics as a background of his ideals. So republican is more global in his thought and leads the country to a more civilized environment. Definitely not, a better and good democrat can bring up a better environment with his ideals too. This marks the success of a leader, may be a democrat or a republican.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Finance for Business Decisions - Essay Example AMP LimitedÃ¢â¬â¢s financial data of 2011 shows that the company has 949,037 shareholders with a total share capital of 2,854,672,784 ordinary shares. The total number of Employees that work under the banner of AMP Limited is 6000, with 4131 employed and self-employed planners and has a relationship with 6,000 independent financial planners (AMP 2012). The company has two major business units, the first works under the name of AMP Financial Services where 4100 aligned and employed planners provide services regarding income protection, disability and life insurance, superannuation and superannuation services for business, retirement income, selected banking products and financial advices to its customers based in Australia and New Zealand. The second unit AMP Capital is diversified investment managers, who invest in fixed interest, property, diversified funds, equities and infrastructure. Currently they are managing $123 billion in assets for those who believe in AMP Capital and their strategies of creating wealth for their clients. The growth is on going with the emergence into different countries worldwide. The merger between AMP with AXA Asia Pacific Holding in 2011 gave a boost to the growth of AMP Limited as being the strongest business of Australia and New Zealand enhancing their services while it creates a competitive force in the financial sector. The investment in AXA Pacific Holding has proved to be a strong policy for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future growth as the merger has increased sales, company has become more competitive and an expanding advisory force. Based on the financial report the company maintains its payout ratio of 75 to 85 percent by announcing a dividend of 14 cents per share for the year 2011. However, the net profit attributable to shareholder of the company declined by 11% and reached $688 million compared to $775 million in 2010. The underlying profit shows 20% increase of $909 million than the previous year, as the 9 months contribution
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Change is a feature of modern life; discuss and critically analyse how a nurse can manage change in order to deliver effective patient care - Essay Example The presentation of current conditions regarding the above issue is also followed with views of literature on the specific subject with an effort to choose and evaluate the most appropriate model for the presentation of the nurse-patient relationship as been formulated under the influence of change in the internal and the external organizational environment. Change management is the process  of developing Ã¢â¬Ëa planned approach to change in an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢. In this context it can be assumed that its main objective is Ã¢â¬Ëto maximize the collective benefits for all people involved in the change and minimize the risk of failure of implementing the changeÃ¢â¬â¢. For the above reasons, it has been found that the discipline of change management Ã¢â¬Ëdeals primarily with the human aspect of change, and is therefore related to pure and industrial psychologyÃ¢â¬â¢. There are several theories referring to the role and the structure of change management, the most known of which is that of Lewin. LewinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of force field analysis (Lewin 1951) is widely used in change management and can be used to help understand most change processes in organisations. In force field analysis change, is characterised as Ã¢â¬Ëa state of imbalance between driving forces (e.g. new personnel, changing markets, new technology) and restraining forces (e.g. individuals fear of failure, organisational inertia)Ã¢â¬â¢. Moreover, in order to achieve change Ã¢â¬Ëtowards a goal or vision three steps are required: Third, once the change is complete the forces are brought back into quasi-equilibrium and re-frozenÃ¢â¬â¢. The above theory although explains the role of secondary forces in an organizational environment does not offer an adequate explanation regarding the criteria on which the Ã¢â¬Ëfrozen, de-frozenÃ¢â¬â¢ procedures are going to be based. Moreover, it has been
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Admission - Essay Example The GRE Course at Kaplan, in Los Angeles, Intensive English Program at UCLA Extension, Los Angeles, Bachelor of Science in Business Administration in King Abdulaziz University College of Economics and Administration, Jeddah, KSA have provided me with reasonable perfection in the theoretical aspect. On the practical experience side, I have handled various important assignments working with Al Hamra Hotel, Jeddah, KSA. I initially worked as an Administrative Assistant (part-time) for International Modern Industries Co. Ltd and now I am holding the position of General Manager Assistant in the same organization. For my excellence in studies, I was awarded King Abdullah Scholarship and Ministry of Higher Education Scholarship. I possess adequate computer knowledge relating to Knowledge of PC and Macintosh formats: Word, Excel and PowerPoint. As for languages, Arabic is my mother tongue and I am fluent in English. My approach to the business world is simple and straightforward. That which is not practical, cannot be a good theory either! My attitude to the MBA@WT program is based on this principle. It is my earnest endeavors to obtain OPT and gain experience in modern financial services and equip myself for joining an established US organization to get the working experience for a year. As such, Maryland University, which is a renowned educational institution, is my first choice. The next part of my career plan is to move to Dubai to join a financial institution there. Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates have a treaty in financial transactions, which will assist me to attain my long-term goals to take active part in the financial revolution in Saudi Arabia, initiated by King Abdullah, with the creation of Financial District (KAFD) in 2011. With this backgrounder information related to my academic credits and practical experience, I am fairly confident that I will an ideal raw material to take up responsibility in top managerial positions and earn a
Friday, August 23, 2019
International Taxation - Transfer Pricing - Research Paper Example For the purpose of the subject under consideration, it is also assumed that the subsidiary company in the aforementioned group structure is a foreign company and the Parent is a local company. When the companies in the group structures are involved in transactions with each other, they put a price on the transaction. This price is termed as the Ã¢â¬Ëtransfer priceÃ¢â¬â¢. This can further be illustrated with the help of the following example: Company A, the parent company, is situated in USA and its subsidiary company, Company B is situated in UK. Suppose that Company A has outsourced its financial activities to its subsidiary company, which means that Company A does not have any staff which are performing finance related activities (such as preparing financial statement, filing tax return, involved in budgeting etc.) instead the finance department of Company B is performing these activities for Company A and in return is charging a fee. Although the owners of both Company A and C ompany B are the same, but still one company is charging a fee for performing a particular service to another company in the capital structure. Transfer pricing is not a legal activity in its substance, but its misuse can label it as abusive. Transfer mispricing is quite common in manufacturing concern all across the globe where the transfer of services are involved rather than the transfer of services. A safe estimate made by the economists and financial analyst presents the fact that around 60% of the international trade that place globally, is between the countries under the same corporate structure. In addition to this figure, the economists also put forward the fact that due to transfer mispricing, billions of dollars is lost for tax revenue. The tax authorities argue the fact that transaction between associated companies within a group should take place on arms length basis. The arms length price is the price at which two unrelated parties in the market would agree to proceed with the transaction. The arms length pricing is a result of genuine negotiation in the market. But usually what happens in the global market is that companies usually distort the transfer prices at which the transaction is recorded. This usually assists the companies in avoiding tax and report higher profit for the financial year. Illustrative Example No. 1 (all figures in USD) Ã Subsidiary Company (fully owned and controlled by the parent company) Ã Parent Company (Head Office of the Multinational) Ã Ã Ã Ã Host Country (China) Home Country (USA) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Price of good bought Ã Transfer Price Ã Selling price Total Case 1 100 Ã 200 Ã 300 Ã Profit Before Tax 100 100 200 Tax Rate (%)[Ey.com 2013] 25% 40% Ã Tax paid 25 40 65 Profit after tax Ã 75 Ã 60 Ã 135 Case 2 100 Ã 280 Ã 300 Ã Profit Before Tax 180 20 200 Tax Rate (%) 25% 40% Ã Tax paid 45 8 53 Profit after tax Ã 135 Ã 12 Ã 147 Ca se 3 100 Ã 300 Ã 300 Ã Profit Before Tax 200 0 200 Tax Rate (%) 25% 40% Ã Tax paid 50 0 50 Profit after tax Ã 150 Ã 0 Ã 150 In the first illustrative example, we are considering two companies situated in USA and China. The company situated in the USA is the parent company whereas the company situated in China is the wholly owned subsidiary company of the Parent. The Parent company is involved in the trading of FMCGs. The items that the company A sale to the general public is manufactured by the subsidiary
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Major Organizational institutions Essay The major international organizations were all formed under one consensus developed by various countries. Each organization was created to fit a specific purpose, but they all follow a unique passion towards socio-economic stability on a global front, better governance, financial transparency, and respect for human rights (Karns, 2004). The organizations discussed in this paper are as follows: 1. International Monetary Fund 2. World Trade Organization 3. United Nations 4. Interpol 5. European Union The International Monetary Fund was created in 1944 with the sole objective of stabilizing exchange rates and the international monetary system. It consists of approximately 185 member countries. The structural hierarchy is topped by a managing director who is selected by executive directors representing various countries. The World Trade Organization was created in 1995 with the objective of liberalization international trade with checks and balances. Consisting of 153 members that constitute 95% of the total world trade, it is governed by a Ministerial Conference, which meets every two years and also appoints the head, the Director General. The WTO is further divided into the General council which deals with day to day affairs and policy decisions. The United Nations was first accepted by the world community through ratification in 1945. Comprising of 6 units ; The General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat and the International Court of Justice, the UNÃ¢â¬â¢s main aim is to facilitate co-operation in the fields of international justice, international law, international security, global economic development, the reduction of poverty and in the end, sustaining world peace. Interpol was created to develop international police co-operation between various countries. The organization is headed by a Secretary General and is governed by the Interpol General Assembly. Its underlying principle relies on the fact that Interpol facilitates information between member countries regarding drug trafficking, organized crime, weapon smuggling and so forth. Interpol cannot get political and thus remains a neutral organization. Its constitution forbids it to act between issues overlapping two member states regarding military, political or religious issues. The European Union constitutes 3 organizations. These include; European Economic Community, European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community. The European Union is composed of various states from Europe, thus making it a regional yet international organization. The European Union acts as one country with one currency (with the exception of United Kingdom) and a single trade policy (McCormick, 2005). In terms of economic development, the united nations development program deals entirely with facilitating resources to poorer countries and helping them develop on the agenda that the current first world nations used. The UNDP provides economic assistance, a variety of policy adjustments and macroeconomic stability programs to impoverished nations requiring aid. The International monetary fund further helps poor countries recover from fiscal debt that Governments accumulate. This helps Governments mitigate their financial and economic needs on a short term immediate basis. Countries suffering from bankruptcy often avail the IMF last fund sponsor program which allows them to borrow from the IMF. The IMF then acts as the lender to the country in need, state bank. The World Trade Organization was one of the first international organizations to spread the globalization bubble. Its view was to see the whole world as one single market and thus eliminate all barriers to trade. The reason being value of competition, low production costs and specialization in country specific production processes to increase quality of goods produced for everyone. The World Trade Organization promotes free and unrestricted trade by doing away with protectionist policies. This means that the WTO and its member countries trade freely with each other without quotas and restrictions. However, unfortunately that has not always been the case in the world market, as many developing countries seek to protect their infant industries. However, with time, the WTO has introduced a set of new policies which force member countries to be receptive to foreign competition in the hope of creating a more effective and efficient way of production that benefits all of mankind. The WTO functions under the ideology of capitalism hoping that with increased open trade, wealth will be created which will trickle down to the masses (Bossche, 2008). Terrorism, war crimes and international order has become a major issue in the rapidly changing world scenario. With continuous major war being fought in various parts of the world during the past 9 years, various new global organizations have come about to ensure the stability of peace. The United Nations, since 1945 has played an active role in these scenarios through one of its organs; the United Nations Security Council. Representing 5 major powers, Russia, United States, China, France and United Kingdom, the UN Security Council tackles global terrorism through sanctions and banning groups forcing member nations to act upon the rebel groups creating problems. Sanctions are slapped against nations abusing their force or subduing other nations in their thirst for power. To ensure neutrality and consensus, all 5 members on the council have the right to veto any resolution passed in the Security Council. This task is further augmented by Interpol which provides co-ordination between the different police forces of the member states. Interpol often issues international warrants for terrorist wanted by different states residing in other states. This allows for a more coordinated effort towards sustaining international order and keeping track of problems facing different nations such as arms smuggling, drug smuggling and human trafficking (Dana, 2000). The United Nations also has an International Court of Justice where various ousted political leaders are tried fairly for the crimes they committed against humanity, their people and other sovereign states. This court of justice ensures that war crimes do not go unpunished and are globally recognized by all member states (Roberts, 1994). One of the main organizations that undertake in capital investment is the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. The OECD brings together various governments in order to provide sustainable development plans that various countries can use to break free from their economic turmoil. It also ensures the steady and sustainable flow of Human Capital Investment throughout the world. Raising living standards, maintaining financial stability and assisting other world economies through contributing in terms of intellect and physical economic strength is also part of the OECD mission. The future prospects for International Organizations are quite diverse when we observe the trends various organizations have seen over the past few years. With the dramatically changed global environment and thought process, a lot of organizations built on previous assumptions require change if they are to have any future prospects at all. The sudden shift to environmental change and the necessity to preserve our planet has put the focus of many governments, NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s and the majority of the population on Earth to shift their attention towards organizations that currently cater to this mind set. Environment change is being view increasingly as a step towards destruction man takes every day. When we talk about governance by such organizations, the prospects look constructive. Most people are turning towards such organizations because it caters to their Ã¢â¬Å"living greenÃ¢â¬ ideology. This ideology is now engulfing our everyday life in the form of new foreign policies, industrial growth and development, and everyday management affairs ranging from the construction of roads to the syllabi of educational institutes. Day by day, companies adopt eco-friendly governance policies because that is what the people want and respect (Karns, 2004). Secondly, we have seen the failure of the United Nations once again. The International Court of Justice at max provides advice, the Security Council is tainted with bias behavior from certain states towards their allies and the resolutions tabled are often rejected on the basis of the veto vote. It is, without a doubt, an emerging thought, that governance by such organizations that police some and free others do not work. Thus, to think that such organizations can bring about global governance is mistaken. People have lost faith in such organizations and more people are doing so day by day. Finally, international monetary institutions and development support agencies are being shunned by developing countries to an alarming success. The false paradigm theory has broken away the countries that were once colonized. They now feel that imperial colonialism has now over-ridden their way of life and these international bodies promote it. Also, the fact that the policies and governance techniques these organizations offer are barely equip to deal with the problems threatening the developing nations of today. They might be well intended but fail to address the ailments of development countries. IMF policies and World Bank regulations are seen more as restrictions rather than good governance techniques to bring economies out of debt. Thus, their policies are often ignored. To presume that good governance can be bought through such international organizations only highlights the weak prospects that such organizations have in global governance when it comes to economic stability. References: Bossche, P. V. D. (2008). The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization. Cambridge University Press. Dana, D. (2000). Conflict Resolution. McGraw-Hill. Diehl, P. (2005). The Politics of Global Governance: International Organizations in an Interdependent World. Lynne Rienner Publishers Karns, M. P. (2004). International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. Lynne Rienner Publishers McCormick, J. (2005). Understanding the European Union: A Concise Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. Roberts, A. (1994). United Nations Divided World: the UNs Roles in International Relations. Oxford University Press.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Cause and Effect Essay The dedication and self-motivation required to balancing schoolwork and practice is the most difficult part of being a student-athlete. I find that being a student-athlete plays out to be much harder than most people think. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very difficult especially at the beginning of the year, when it finally hits you that youÃ¢â¬â¢re growing up and finally have to do your own laundry. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re not only getting your-self situated as far as classes go, but also meeting new people. You have to balance all the new tasks in your life as well as starting new relationships. One obvious cause of wanting to become a student-athlete is the persona. Everyone wants to be the star athlete and everyone wants to be the cool kid on the sports team that gets all the chicks. This is something that we were raised around, all the professional athletes getting praised as kings while walking around with a supermodel around their arm. I mean who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want that kind of life? Being a student-athlete is something that you can take pride in. You want to take pride in yourself by representing your team in athletics but also want to further your education by acquiring a degree witch causes you to be a student athlete. It also makes you stand out among the rest because not only are you a full time student but also a full time athlete. Which gives you life skills like motivation and determination that you take with you through out life. Above all it gives your parents something to brag about to their siblings because their twenty three year old son is still living in their house, while flipping burgers down the street. The major cause of being a student-athlete is that you want to have friends. Sure being a student-athlete teaches you how to balance a crazy life style and creates better time management but it also allows you to create great friendships. With schoolwork and practice you usually donÃ¢â¬â¢t have socializing time but you will always have your teammates. Knowing this could cause you to become a student-athlete. The cause of student-athletes is when a person wants to thrive to better them self, they want to push themselves to new heights, they want an edge on their competition, want to hopefully find new friendships and in some cases they just want the praise of being a student-athlete. It takes a special person to want to be a student athlete for the right causes, and might need to be revaluated if all you want is the praise of being a student-athlete. A plus is that most of the student-athletes either quickly realize its not for them because their grades become less of an importance and cheerleaders along with a thirty rack becomes a priority, or they end up seeing the importance of education and find themselves succeeding in life. The first effect of a student-athlete is that you will develop physical abilities. Your body will be in better shape, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to achieve things that physically you couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t accomplish before. You will push your self to levels you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think wherever possible to reach. You my not have your photo in all the papers and the model on your arm is more likely to be a cute hometown girl that you met at a party, but you have still accomplished more than you would have if you where a normal college student that sits in front on his video games all day, only leaving the room to buy more chips because he destroyed his last bag of Doritos. The second effect has to do with your personal life. Practicing a sport requires some time, plus schoolwork and everything else going in your life you usually donÃ¢â¬â¢t have time to lie around and be lazy. Which teaches you not only to have an amazing work ethic but also how to manage the time that you have. It also keeps you busy enough to stay out of trouble, most of the time. When you are playing for a team the name on the front means a hell of a lot more important than the name on the back. When you go some place to play your not representing your self, youÃ¢â¬â¢re representing your team and your university. There is only a fortunate bunch of people that get to put on a uniform to represent something bigger than them, so as a student-athlete you take pride in what you do, and you take advantage in representing your school every time you touch the field. The most important effect of being a student athlete is your teammates and your everlasting friendships. You will meet a lot of people being a student-athlete but only a small group of individuals will become your friends to the point you can call them your second family. That is the meaning of a team. As an athlete you will develop a strong character and a competitive spirit. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll become more disciplined and responsible, which will certainly help you in your professional life. Above all you develop relationships that can be unbreakable. You go through hell with each other, or as some people like to call it conditioning. You step on the field and go to battle with one another trusting that the other guys in the game will give as much effort if not more to win. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll get on each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s nervous and sometimes get into fights, but no matter what at the end of the day youÃ¢â¬â¢ll always have your second family. The effect of being a student-athlete shapes your body, your life, and your mind in good ways. Practicing a sport, going to classes, doing homework and trying to balance a social life keeps you entertained and far away from boredom. In addition you will have the chance to experience the amazing feeling of success after all the hard work you put in to being a student-athlete. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s worth all the early morning practices, and tough love conditioning to be able to see defeat in your opponents face. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s worth all the seven oÃ¢â¬â¢clock classes, and professorsÃ¢â¬â¢ monotone lectures to be able to see the overwhelming sense of joy on your mothers face as you receive you diploma. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s worth the long bus rides, and all the tough losses to be able to have a group of guys you can call youÃ¢â¬â¢re family. Even though its hard work being a student-athlete is a great experience that will stay with you forever.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Importance Of Translating Messages One of the main concerns of translation studies is the problem of accuracy: how much freedom the translator is allowed when interpreting a text from one language into another; whether he/she has to concentrate on the content or on the atmosphere of the piece of literature. In this paper, by comparing and contrasting the theory of Noam Chomsky (as presented in Syntactic Structures, 1957) and the one emerging from it by Eugene A. Nida (in Toward a Science of Translating, 1964), the core message of a text will be proven to be one the most important features. First of all, according to Edwin Gentzler (1993), despite the fact that Chomskys work was not specifically meant to be a part of translation studies, Nida adopted several aspects of it into his own, as, in the words of Gentzler (1993), Chomsky was literally a Godsend for Nida (p. 46) literally, because the main field of Nidas research involved the translation of the Bible. To get a clearer impression about their theories, it is essential to become familiar with them. As Gentzler (1993) points out, Noam Chomsky was more interested in the rules and structures of grammar than deep structures. His theory involves three levels of conceptualization: (1) a base component made up of phrase structure rules that generate (2) a deep structure, which in turn is changed, via transformational rules into (3) a surface structure (Gentzler, 1993: 46). This concept was significantly altered in Nidas adaptation. As Snell-Hornby (1988) describes him, in the United States the most influential scholar was undoubtedly Eugene A. Nida (p. 14) who was originally engaged in the invention of a methodology for Bible translations in order to help missionaries deliver the core message of the book. According to Gentzler (1993), he was appalled by nineteenth-century tendencies of preferring literal translation to the meaning. As cited in Gentzler (1993), he claimed that the words [of the American Standard Version of the Bible] may be English, but the grammar is not; and the sense is quite lacking (p. 45). To solve the problem, he took Chomskys theory and, to make it fit into his own invention, simplified it by omitting the first component. In this way, he created a system from generative grammar exclusively for translation practice, and it became quite popular. As Gentzler (1993) points out, both Chomskys and Nidas model agree on a deep, coherent, and unified entity which is the same in every language, and only changes in the surface structure, i.e. when presented in different languages (p. 46). However, the two theories take disparate ways in analysing the core: Chomsky is more concerned about universal rules of grammar and universal lexical forms, whereas Nida tends to discover an original divine message (Gentzler, 1993: 47). Despite the religious undertone, Nidas viewpoint seems more relevant for translation studies than Chomskys: it is the exact interpretation of the message that should be considered as priority, not the pursuit of creating sentences in the target language grammatically as close as possible to the ones in the original text but then again, Chomskys model has not been developed for the field Nida uses it. Actually, as mentioned by Gentzler (1993), Nida ventures further into the matter, and states that the core message is so important that it must be delivered in any case even by sacrificing the original sentences to bend them to the needs of the cultural peculiarities of the target language. For instance, he translates the phrase Lamb of God as Seal of God for Eskimo language, since for the Eskimos, the seal is the animal equivalent of the lamb in regards of sacrifice (Snell-Hornby, 1988: 19). It is one of his techniques of adjustment (Chesterman, 2005: 20). For him, it is not the sign that matters, but the response to the sign (Gentzler, 1993: 53), because as long as it makes people behave the way God wants them to, his interpretation is correct, regardless the changes in the text. He calls this kind of translation faithful, which is somewhat ironical, since the word has traditionally  been reserved for literal translations (Gentzler, 1993: 58). However, since he privileges the me aning above the form, it fits into his theory quite well. Gentzler (1993) mentions another difference between Chomskys and Nidas model: the methodology. Although Chomsky agrees with the crucial role of the core or deep structure, it is antithetic to his views to execute such practices that Nida does who demolishes the sentences into deep structure, carries it into the target language, and then finally, uses it to rebuild the sentences in the target language. It is true that in regards of the method described above, Nida clearly diverges from Chomsky, but translation-wise, it seems rather efficient (like the example with the Eskimos). There is one aspect in which Gentzler (1993) clearly disagrees with Nida: he claims that Nidas advices for translators to agree with or even admire the original author of the text is a considerably dangerous one, because they could fall prey to the so-called intentional fallacy (p. 57). Unfortunately, his fears seem valid: however beneficiary it is to understand the tiniest subtleties of the writer as a translator, one should rather not let his/her very self and opinions flow excessively into the work of another person, since he/she is only a chain which connects the original text and the translation. Too much self-identification may result in the alteration of the core message. In conclusion, it can be clearly seen that, according to the theory of Eugene A. Nida, in order to present a text to a language whose speakers live in a completely different culture than the speakers of the source language, a translator is permitted to take liberations when interpreting the sentences. Naturally, the occasions at which the cultural gap between the nations is so vast that between English and Eskimo occur quite rarely, but the subtleties are always present when a text is translated from one language to another and even one mistranslated word can cause tragedies. References: Chesterman, A. (2005). Problems With Strategies. In K. KÃ ¡roly Ã . FÃ ³ris (Eds.), New Trends in Translation Studies (pp. 17-28). Budapest: AkadÃ ©miai KiadÃ ³. Gentzler, E. (1993). Contemporary Translation Theories. London: Routledge. Shell-Hornby, M. (1988). Translation Studies: An Integrated Approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Creation Stories Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Where do we come from? The creation of the world has for centuries been told through many different stories, in different languages, and from a variety of religions across the world. The founders of each religion developed every creation story, and as religions vary greatly in beliefs, so do their stories of how the world and mankind were created. Although many of these creation stories differ, they have a close mystical and spiritual bind that brings people together. Two particular creation stories from very diverse religions are that of the Native Americans and the Christians. Unlike Christians who worship one god, Native Americans worship two high gods as well as a variety of natural and supernatural forces. Although both stories may differ from one another in determining their belief of creation, they both are similar in which both religions believe that through ceremonies and worship that they will be at harmony with god. Through their creation stories we can interperate their understanding of the world around them, how they view life, and how they are compatible and incompatible with one another. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Native Americans believe that all things of nature have a spiritual value in life, they use animals, insects, plants, and other forms of nature to symbolize spirits in their stories. Native Americans have a variety of creation stories in which different tribes depict how they believe the world and evolution came to be. The Osage tribe has a creation story in which the world is emerged out of chaos; the Seneca tribe has a creation story in which the world came together through a clash of good and evil. The creation story that is found in many tribes is that of ?Inktomi?, also known as ? spider woman? whom they believe created earth and life. They believe that spider woman spun a line to form the east, west, north, and south, from which came the Four Corners of the earth. Those who had forgotten the gift of her thread would drown in the great flood she sent, but for those who remembered they floated to the New World and climbed unto the safety of mother earth. The N ative American creation story reveals that they understand the world to be a place of equality. In the following passage the creation of man is depicted from the use of different clays: ? Spider woman used the clay of the earth, red, yellow, white, and black, to c... ... But for some Native Americans they believe that when they die their soul takes form as a part of nature, whether a bird, tree, or wolf, and like their ancestors they will provide as a guardian for their people after them. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After learning of the varying stories that the Native American and Christian religions depict of creation, I have come to the conclusion that they all have a similarity with one another despite their other differences. They both have the belief that a higher force, for the Native Americans it was the Spider Woman and for the Christians it was God, created the earth and humanity. For religions such as these the scientific explanation of creation holds no importance in their lives, because their faith and teachings of their creation story justifies their belief. Across the world the cultures, languages, and beliefs that separate people from one another are erased when it comes down to the story of our beginning, our creation story. Like seen in the compatibalities of the Christians and Native Americans their creation stories have for centuries interpreted their understanding of the world around them, spiritually binding people from all religions together.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The affect of environmental issues occur everyday and in particular deforestation is becoming a highly ranked subject. From animals to the human race, the alacrity of trees that are cut down affects every individual in a variety of ways. Not only do people need to help the planet but they need to help themselves and further generations to come, such as children and grandchildren because these natural resources that are being taken away from society are as well shaping the future. For comprehensible reasons, forests use to make up the world, until man made creatures started to destroy and destruct the most important supply to human kind which are trees. Trees are crucial to every living entity for the reason of providing oxygen to all. The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s current problem which is deforestation can be solved by giving more knowledge about the cause, creating a luxury tax on meat products, and pin-pointing the major places that are being affected. Deforestation is a disturbance taking place causing the loss of environmental species or animals, natural herbs, and basic nourishment's. This cogent problem of deforestation has become a major problem because now more trees are being cut down and arenÃ¢â¬â¢t being replanted, leaving animals without a home to go back to. The animals that are being consumed are being reproduced and need more land area to graze around on, so more space is used while not considering the loss of other species. Environmental animals in the forests are becoming extinct and if they disappear from the earth than people will never know the usefulness or capability of each creature. For example, animals are useful in ways of protecting the family or even for hard labor work such as plowing and human companionship. Nat... ...ent Facts, Environment Science, Global Warming, Natural NorhtDisasters, Ecosystems, Green Living - National Geographic. Web. 03 Dec. 2010. Northhttp://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation-Northoverview.html. Ã¢â¬Å"Deforestation.Ã¢â¬ University of Michigan. Web. 04 Dec. 2010. Northhttp://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/deforestation.htm. "TreeHelp.com: Trees: Insects." Treehelp.com - Tree Care Made Easy. Web. 04 Dec. 2010. northhttp://www.treehelp.com/trees/trees-insects.asp. Brown, Katrina and David W. Pearce. Ã¢â¬Å"The Causes of Tropical DeforestationÃ¢â¬ . Vancouver: UCB Press, 1994. http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Effect-of-Deforestation&id=510236. 10 September 2010 Stock , Jocelyn. Ã¢â¬Å"The Choice: Doomsday or Arbor Day.Ã¢â¬ Deforestation. N.d. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/deforestation.htm . 10 September 2010.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Revengeful Justice in William Shakespeare's Hamlet Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hamlet's motives rally between those of both revenge and justice, and it becomes this internal conflict which sets the pace of events throughout Shakespeare's entire play. Revenge serves Hamlet as his initial goal in the pursuit for vindication of his father's death. Soliloquy later reveals Hamlet's torn sensibility and care for justice, which decelerates his ability to proceed in action against Claudius. Not until Hamlet confronts his own procrastination, does the inaction cease. Hamlet defeats his inner struggle by melding opposing forces and internally justifying revenge. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hamlet does not initially have a strong enough will to act solely on revenge. Even though Hamlet had proclaimed that he would be "swift" and "sweep to my revenge,"In the "rogue and peasant slave" soliloquy, Hamlet admits that he has been "unpregnant of my cause" and wonders whether he is a "coward". Not until Hamlet becomes completely fed up with his own inaction, does he finally examine the guilt of Claudius. However this task is thwarted when Hamlet witnesses Claudius praying. His will is rationalized by the notion that Claudius' soul might escape eternal damnation. Hamlet finally address his "dull revenge" in his climactic soliloquy admitting," I do not know/ Why yet I live to say This thing's to do/ Sith I have cause and will and strength and means/ To do't" Here Hamlet finally swears against his previous inaction "O! From this time forth,/ My thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth" Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hamlet's overly intellectual mind inhibits him from taking decisive action and he concedes this in two very important soliloquies . First in the "To be or not to be" soliloquy, Hamlet concludes, "Thus conscience does make cowards of us all/ And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied over with the pale cast of thought" While being exiled to England, hamlet thinks his procrastination is a result of " some craven scruple/ Of thinking too precisely on the event" His insightful mind examines his problems to such an extent that it creates dilemmas rather than solving them.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Negative Construction French Marxist thinker, Louis Althusser, established a crucial theory which illuminates how and why Ã¢â¬ËmythsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËideologiesÃ¢â¬â¢ are constructed throughout time and history. In his celebrated essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,Ã¢â¬ Althusser makes a convincing argument in concerns with Ã¢â¬ËideologyÃ¢â¬â¢ and its influence on individuals or Ã¢â¬ËsubjectÃ¢â¬â¢ which are created through specialized institutions (i.e. religious, educational, political, and family, trade union, communication, et al.). Althusser aptly declares that, Ã¢â¬Å"Ideology is a Ã¢â¬ËrepresentationÃ¢â¬â¢ of the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existenceÃ¢â¬ (Althusser, 1994). In addition, Althusser wants to clarify the significance of ideologies imposed on individuals: Ã¢â¬Å"Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before FreudÃ¢â¬ ¦There is a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the Ã¢â¬ËpeopleÃ¢â¬â¢ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginationsÃ¢â¬ (1496, 1499). Now take AlthusserianÃ¢â¬â¢s notion on the construction of Ã¢â¬ËideologyÃ¢â¬â¢ and apply it to the myth of the Ã¢â¬ËAmerican dream.Ã¢â¬â¢ Within the socio-historical context of the American dream, the idea that people can start with little more than determination and cunning and leave a legacy of wealth and accomplishment is perhaps the most persistent hope for Americans. As an ideology constructed over history, the subjective/cultural/social construct of the Ã¢â¬ËAmerican dreamÃ¢â¬â¢ shapes how many Americans see their successes or failures and, equally significant, demonstrates the many contours of U.S. society. For African-Americans (including women and ethnic groups), however, were not fully Ã¢â¬ËassimilatedÃ¢â¬â¢ into every aspect of American society, especially since the American dream ideology specifically referred or geared towards Ã¢â¬Ëwhite males,Ã¢â¬â¢ for several reasons. If we look at American history, blacks (like women and other minorities) had dreams of obtaining equal rights and independence that was privileged to the Ã¢â¬Ëcommon man.Ã¢â¬â¢ The slaves were constantly being told to postpone or wait-for their freedom would come. Even the declaration of independence states Ã¢â¬Å"all men are created equalÃ¢â¬ ¦endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rightsÃ¢â¬ ¦among those life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness,Ã¢â¬ but the slaves of this time were disappointed because this defining of Ã¢â¬Ëall menÃ¢â¬â¢ excluded blacks. In fact, it excluded pretty much everyone, except white men with land. In this postponing of freedom, slavery, discrimination, racism, Jim Crow laws, sharecropping, riots and so on. Thus the Ã¢â¬ËAmerican dream,Ã¢â¬â¢ to quote from Langston Hughes, has been deferred. Ã¢â¬Å"DeferredÃ¢â¬ because blacks had to wait, delegate to others who could promote change. Since most minorities were not fully integrated into American life, some managed to Ã¢â¬ËsuccessfullyÃ¢â¬â¢ pass by within the rigid structure of society. Case in point, Macon Dead and rapper Shawn Carter (aka Jay-Z) should be interpreted as accultrationist rather than assimilationist with respect to the American dream for several reasons. First and foremost, the term acculturation carries three definitions: it is seen as the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure, all the knowledge and values shared by a society and, lastly, the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture. Ultimately, acculturation is the obtainment of Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ by an individual or a group of people. The latter two definitions, however, provide greater insight into Macon DeadÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristic as an acculturationist. Living in an unjust capitalist system, resides in an era where most Americans failed to acknowledge the presence of blacks (and other minorities) by deliberately and blatantly pass frivolous laws and regulations. Macon Dead, as a patriarch/hard-nosed businessman, is defined as an individual of substance who has acquired property in which he rents to black underclass tenants. Consequently Macon Dead is described in the context of trying to emulate and Ã¢â¬ËadoptÃ¢â¬â¢ similar behavior patterns from Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ society considering America excluded blacks (and other minorities) in every conceivable way (i.e. socially, politically, cultural, etc). For instance, Morrison carefully describes MaconÃ¢â¬â¢s appreciation for materialistic possessions in another scene when the rest of his family takes an excursion on Not Doctor Street: Ã¢â¬Å"These rides that the family took on Sunday afternoons had become rituals and much too important for Macon to enjoy. For him it was a way to satisfy himself that he was indeed a successful manÃ¢â¬ ¦Macon DeadÃ¢â¬â¢s Packard rolled slowly down Not Doctor Street, through the rough part of town (later known as the Blood Bank because blood flowed so freely there), over the bypass downtown, and headed for the wealthy white neighborhoods. Some of the black people who saw the car passing by sighed with good-humored envy at the classiness, the dignity of itÃ¢â¬ (Morrison, 32). This scene illustrates MaconÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to purchase a wealthy vehicle (i.e. Packard) which functions as a means of communicating, Ã¢â¬ËachievementÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËopulenceÃ¢â¬â¢ to the public. Therefore in order to achieve this myth/ideology/concept of the Ã¢â¬ËAmerican dream,Ã¢â¬â¢ Macon Dead truly has to abandon himself and, equally significant, his Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ identity by emulating the hated white people of America around that time. Macon Dead is less sympathetic to his own culture by taking a Ã¢â¬Ëwhite manÃ¢â¬â¢s roleÃ¢â¬â¢ (i.e. dominant culture) as a cutthroat businessman which also solidifies his reputation as an Ã¢â¬ËoutsiderÃ¢â¬â¢ within the black community. In the contemporary context, Jay-Z is the postmodern version of what constitutes an acculturationist by virtue of the hip-hop aesthetics (whereas John Coltrane, Miles Davis or any black jazz musician can be defined as the modernist version of accultrationist). William Eric Perkins, author of Ã¢â¬Ëthe rap attack,Ã¢â¬â¢ details the influence of hip-hop culture and its signification towards inner-city teens and America (in particular, African-American and Latino kids): Ã¢â¬Å"Rap music and hip hop cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s ongoing bewildering love/hate relationship with American society requires a fresh evaluation of the role street culture plays in the continuing evolution of American popular cultureÃ¢â¬ (Perkins, 1). As Jay-Z was raised from the underprivileged neighborhoods of Brooklyn, especially at a time where hip-hop (as an urban phenomenon) reached its second wave of talented MCÃ¢â¬â¢s from the inner-city neighborhoods of South Bronx, Harlem, and throughout NYC (with the likes of LL Cool J, Kool Moe Doe, Big Daddy Kane, Eric B and Rakim, KRS-One, A Tribe Called Quest, De La Soul, Ultramagnetic MCÃ¢â¬â¢s, to name a few), Jay-Z understood the integral relationship between hip-hop and street life by Ã¢â¬ËadoptingÃ¢â¬â¢ certain Ã¢â¬Ëbehavior patternsÃ¢â¬â¢ within the musical genre.
Friday, August 16, 2019
In conducting a research to determine the best criminal justice graduate program in the Midwest, it would be best to select measures that are able to clearly give snapshots of what to expect from each program. These measures are faculty quality, student-instructor ratios in both classes and research, graduate prominence in criminal justice institutions, and program standing with accrediting organizations. The first measure can be ordinal, nominal, and ratio. Basically, we need to examine the credentials of the faculty members teaching in the said program. This examination includes the number of papers that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve published in peer-reviewed journals, their positions in academic organizations, as well as their rankings in relevant and recognized academic competitions. Of course, we need to compare each of these variables for this measure separately. This measure gives us a comprehensive view of the level of competence professors in the program have. However, this does not include one of the most important measures which is student feedback, a variable that may often be difficult to obtain due to it being classified in nature. The next measure is the student-instructor ratio. This is the ratio of the number of students that are found in a class handled by one professor. This can also refer to the number of advisees handled by one professor. Generally, favorable ratios should come closer to one. The larger the ratio is, the more congested classrooms are likely to be. This implied that the professor might not be able to give ample attention to each student. This is especially problematic in terms of research advising. Professors should generally be advising only a few students at a time with research work. Following the student-teacher ratio is the prominence of the program graduates in criminal justice institutions. This measure can include the positions held by the graduates, the length of time after graduating before they held the said positions, as well as awards that they received in the positions held. This measure gives a preview of what to expect after graduation from the program. Ratio data can be collected by taking the total number of graduates to the number of graduates holding positions in relevant institutions after a certain time period. A bigger ratio would imply poorer graduate performance specifically in the program that they have completed. Finally, ordinal and nominal data from accrediting institutions can be collected as the fourth measure. Nominal data can be grade accreditations while ordinal data can include program rankings with other programs in the Midwest. With this measure, the student will be able to see just where the program places with respect to other programs according to criteria set by credible bodies. Following the four measures set in this paper will provide the prospecting student with a comprehensive view on the quality of the graduate school program in criminal justice that he or she seeks to enroll in. The measures selected scrutinize both the competence and availability of faculty members to attend to student needs in both class content and graduate research. The measures also provide means for scrutiny of the program itself by examining the experiences of its graduates. Lastly, direct examination of accreditations provide a clear image of how the academic community views the program. These measures will be successful in evaluating which school offers the best program.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
We are living in a generation that we can't complete our day without using technology, A generation of the beginning of the new world order, That have started to become a major problem in our society and effects the way we live.On the one hand, It makes as unsociable in the real life; Since the beginning of technology, When Computers and video games consoles were invented people started to spent more time in their houses playing virtual games and virtual activities that has started to make them unsociable in the real life and isolated from the outside activities, And that creates new diseases and disorder such as laziness and a loss of personality. Second of all, People Started using technology to chat with their friends and beloved once instead of talking to them personally, and that has started to affect our way to communicate with each other's.Furthermore, People has started to use technology for online shopping, Paying the bills, and its good it saves time and effort but there is disadvantages of it, people used to go shopping and meet new people why doing it and now the technology Is taking over. On the second hand, People started to lose their Jobs to machines that will do the work for them; nowadays people have been replaced by machines to the Job for example; the train ticket guy has been replaced for a machine to do the Job, tell then unemployment rate has Increased.Second of all, based on the American police department, machine robbery has been Increased since 1990 till now, because It Is easy to rob. On the other hand, technology has made as over dependent on our gadgets; technology had made as over dependent on our gadgets that we cannot not to check on our smartness every minute, we depend on It In everything for example; Navigation, Alarm, Calculator, Calendar. It Is good to have this technologies but what if the battery died? Or the phone got stolen?People will get lost In their life and will face hard time managing It. Second of all, the more pe ople begin to depend on computers and other forms of technology for everyday existence. This means that when a machine breaks or a computer crashes, humans become almost disabled until the problem Is resolved. This kind of dependency on technology puts people at a distinct disadvantage, because they become less self-reliant. In conclusion, as we have seen above, nothing Is perfect. Everything can be dark or right; positive or negative.It depends on the way we deal with It, depending and using technology every day In our lives can cause a lot of problems as mentioned above, we Just have to find a way to use It less than before and not to depend on It. Technology is a major problem in society By Weeks-Shabby people why doing it and now the technology is taking over. Unemployment rate has increased. Second of all, based on the American police department, machine robbery has been increased since 1990 till now, because it is on our smartness every minute, we depend on it in everything fo r example; Navigation, Alarm, Calculator, Calendar.It is good to have this technologies but what if the battery died? Or the phone got stolen? People will get lost in their life and will face hard time managing it. Second of all, the more people begin to depend on until the problem is resolved. This kind of dependency on technology puts people at In conclusion, as we have seen above, nothing is perfect. Everything can be dark or bright; positive or negative. It depends on the way we deal with it, depending and using technology every day in our lives can cause a lot of problems as mentioned above, we Just have to find a way to use it less than before and not to depend on it.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
1. The preoperative checklist on what needs to be done to take care of a patient can be found on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s chart, usually under the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s orders and/or the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s notes. 2. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommends that blood tests should be taken prior to having a surgery regardless of patientÃ¢â¬â¢s healthy condition, unless contraindicated. This is done to provide information about conditions that could affect the treatment that a patient would need (Lab Tests Online, 2004). Blood tests to be included in this routine preoperative testing are a full blood count, blood clotting tests, blood typing, blood gasses, blood glucose, and a sickle cell test (Lab Tests Online, 2004). A full blood count will measure haemoglobin and the number of other types of cells in the blood (Lab Tests Online, 2004). Blood typing is for blood transfusion, in case needed. Blood clotting test to determine if blood clots normally and how long it takes to clot (Lab Tests Online, 2004). Blood gasses, measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as its acidity, and blood glucose to check for diabetes. Sickle cell testing if the patient has risk factors. 3. The registered nurse is responsible for reporting any discrepancies in the lab results of the patient to the physician in charge. 4. Preoperative education should include orienting the patient with the surgery that she is going to go through. Ask what she understood from the physician and answer her questions for further clarification. Afterwards, explain the patient what to expect during her recovery period, and what are her postoperative exercises. Also, enlighten the patient on the risks of post-op recovery like pulmonary embolus, DVT and UTI, and the possible ways on how to avoid these, through deep breathing exercises and wearing of anti-embolic stockings (University of South Australia, 2000). Finally, inform her of what other procedures are to be done after the surgery, for example, utilization of catheters and IV therapy. 5. A preoperative shower employs the use of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate polyester cloth in scrubbing the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s body as a preventive preparation aimed at reducing the patient's skin colonization before the incision is made (Bjerke, 2001). . The anaesthesiologist is the one to administer the anaesthesia. 7. A general anaesthesia will make Mary unaware of what is happening during the operation, it will make her not feel anything, it will even put her to sleep (Rashiq, 2007). Penthidine is the analgesic of choice postoperative; to not feel pain (JBC Handbook, 1997). 8. An epidural anaesthesia is called an epidural block and requires the injection of anaesthetics in the epidural membrane that surrounds the spinal cord (Sarafino, 2006). Epidural blocks are most commonly administered during labour and delivery (American Pregnancy Association, 2007). . Marking the legs preoperative is done traditionally by estimating the position of the hip joint by palpation of the greater trochanter (The, 2006). 10. Epidural infection, nerve damage, backache, headache and urinary retention (Faure, 2000). 11. a. Ensure patientÃ¢â¬â¢s tag is the same with her chart. b. make sure patient is not wearing any metals, jewelleries, etc. c. ensure is certain about undergoing the operation d. ensure that patient has gone through all the necessary diagnostic tests e. ensure that patient is still on NPO. 12. The patientÃ¢â¬â¢s chart, diagnostic test results, patientÃ¢â¬â¢s consent. 13. Vital sign assessment has to be done every 15 minutes for the first hour and special attention will be brought to the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s respiration, due to the anaesthesia, and circulation and sensation of the extremities especially in the affected areas. Output is also monitored. Patient still on NPO until anaesthesia wears off totally. 14. No, this is a common postoperative effect. Continue monitoring output. 15. Decrease in urine output is common postoperative due to opioid drugs, immobility, and decreased oral intake (Merck, 2005). The physician may order CredeÃ¢â¬â¢s manoeuvre to be implemented and Betanechol can be administered (Merck, 2005). 6. Neurovascular checks are important to determine if there was nerve damage or internal bleeding and a circulation problem, or even infection, which could have been caused by the surgery. The neurovascular check is comprised of the five PÃ¢â¬â¢s, namely pain, paralysis, paraesthesia, pulses, and pallor (Judge, 2007). Check for thes e in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s limbs. 17. Loss of pedal pulses might mean lack of arterial flow (Judge, 2007). This should be reported immediately to the registered nurse or the physician, whoever is readily available. 18. Any deviation from the normal baseline data regarding neurovascular checks should be reported immediately to the physician to avoid amputation of the affected extremity. 19. Log roll patient with abductor hip in place. To prepare the patient, she should be placed on one side of the bed, and rolled like a log to the unaffected side of the hip replacement. 20. A postoperative wash will make the patient feel comfortable and refreshed, also it will minimize infection. 21. Her pain might increase or decrease and this can signal a change in the source of pain. Also, the narcoticÃ¢â¬â¢s infusion rate can be changed if pain is lessened. 2. Two or more nurses to ensure that the correct rate is delivered. 23. As a student nurse, I cannot change infusion rates for narcotic pain relievers because I do not have the license yet that will make me accountable for any unpleasant consequence that might arise from the situation. Even under the watchful eye of my instructor, I cannot do it. 24. Na rcotics have to be watched for their side effects, especially respiratory depression. Observations that can be noted when a patient is with a narcotics infusion include clients respiratory rate, confusion and drowsiness (BP Cancer Agency, 2008). 5. Heparin injections are administered as a prophylaxis for blood clots (Science News, 1988). 26. Bleeding can be a complication of heparin use because it prevents clotting. Be wary of the following signs: black, tarry stools and bleeding from gums when brushing or flossing teeth, continued redness or pain after an injection, nosebleeds, red urine, unusual bruising coughing up blood (Drug Information Online, 2008). 27. Positive nitrate may indicate bacterial contamination, and traces of protein and blood are not alarming (Eccles Health Sciences Library, 2008). 28. Yes. This is because catheter removal will help in eradicating any possible bacterial contamination. 29. A urine specimen should be sent for a culture and sensitivity test to determine what bacteria is infecting the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s urinary tract. Sample should be sent to the laboratory immediately. 30. The needed equipment shall be gathered. After washing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s hands and explaining to the patient what procedure is to be done and what the rationale behind it is, the drainage tubing directly below the aspiration port will be clamped with a rubber band or clamp (Integrated Publishing, 2007). This is to ensure that an adequate amount of urine for a specimen can be taken. A syringe will be used to aspirate the urine specimen. After gathering enough urine, the clamp shall be removed. 31. Inserting an indwelling catheter requires that the equipment needed be gathered first. Then the procedure is to be explained to the patient. She should be placed in a dorsal recumbent position. Using the sterile technique, the patient should be draped with sterile dressings. Sterile gloves will then be worn. Catheter tip is to be lubricated and placed on the sterile catheter tray. The labia are to be separated with the thumb and forefinger and a swipe of a swab with sterile povidone-iodine shall be done from the meatus toward the rectum. This shall be done thrice discarding each swab after one swipe. Catheter is to be inserted two to three inches into the urethra, and an additional inch once there is urine flowing. Balloon will be inflated once it is inside the bladder. Traction is gently applied to the catheter and drainage is taped to MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s thigh. (Kaplan, 2007) 32. To remove an indwelling catheter, a small syringe is attached to the inflation port on the side of the catheter and all the fluid is drawn out (Moore et al, 2007). Afterwards, slowly pull the catheter out (Moore et al, 2007). 33. Patients are on strict monitoring of fluid balance because they are receiving fluids through their IV therapies and postoperative patients are still weaning off from their anaesthesia, making urine retention a side effect. A positive fluid balance occurs when intake is greater than output, and a negative fluid balance happens when intake is lesser than output. 34. Fluid overload can bring about fluid and electrolyte imbalance, dysrhythmia, high blood pressure, non-pitting oedema, diarrhoea, projectile vomiting, among many others (Williams, 2008). Osmotic diuretics can be administered per doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s orders, patient should be on strict I&O, IV fluids should be checked hourly, fluids should be restricted (Williams, 2008). 35. The medications should also be reflected on the output of Mary if it is working. 36. total intake: 500ml IVF + 2160 ml tea and Milo + 360ml water = 3020 total output: 1400ml urination + bowel The patient is in a positive balance.
Stem cell research is an extremely hot topic issue that is being discussed in the world for the present day. Many churches and people who are defined by the term rationalists tend to be very against the use of stem cells for research. There are two main types of stem cells that are prevalent in the science world right now which include both adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells. Religious groups tend to lean more towards the use of adult stem cells for research because of the moral issue behind the use of embryonic stem cells. In order to use an embryonic stem cell for research you must first destroy the embryo. In many religions, life begins at conception so the development of that embryo is considered to be life. Thus, the destruction of that embryo would be conside erg believes that science should play an important role in the advancement of society no matter where it falls in the issue of morality. Heisenberg says in this passage that modern science could make it easie r for people to believe if they saw it firsthand rather than just believing the bible. In conclusion, stem cell research is a very important issue that is being debated in the world during the modern day. Throughout recent years many intelligent minds have debated the morality of the use of embryonic cells over the use of adult stem cells. Over the course of history there have been a wide variety of people including Galileo and Heisenberg whom I believe would have had a very strong personal opinion on this subject. Although each author is from a different time period I believe that both would agree stem cell research on embryonic stem cells should be done.