Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Classical Approach to Management

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. In for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers) and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely. In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to ‘manage' oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others. II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. The problem of this research is how to use the classical approach to management in this researcher's job as a manager and determine how it affects the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firm's resources to achieve the policy's objectives. III. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The researcher aims to use the classical approach to management as a manager, and employ Henri Fayol's general theory of management which consists of six primary functions of management and 14 principles of management, and Frederick Taylor's scientific management which focuses on improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. IV. SYNOPSIS As the manager, this researcher will lay down the framework of organization first by creating the top-level managers. They will be responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They will develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, the top-level managers will be involved in the mobilization of outside resources and will be accountable to the shareholders and general public. In order to establish a strong, well-founded, and steady workflow, the researcher will integrate Fayol's Principles of Management in outlining the business policy that will include: a) the mission of the business which is the most obvious purpose: b) the vision of the business which reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination: c) the objective of the business which refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed; d) the business policy that will stipulate rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers' ecision-making(it must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees; and e) the business strategy which will coordinate plans of actions that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives, and will also serve as a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the busine ss's advantage. During the operational stage, the researcher will employ Taylor's principles in maintaining economic efficiency emphasizing the prevention of interpersonal friction between workers and managers, and social tensions between the blue-collar and white-collar classes. To do this, the workforce will be given one seat to the Board of Directors so that they will be properly represented in ventilating their concerns. One good example of Taylor's and Fayol's approaches is the case of Bergen Community College (BCC) Bergen  Community College  is a diverse organization that consists of many different departments. The manager who supervises this college is responsible for over 500 employees and a customer (student) base of over 12,000. It is important for a manger to look at the needs of the students and then try to implement the best management system that satisfies all the members of the organization. One factor to look at is the environment of BCC. The main factors that concern the general environment of BCC are the economic conditions, social conditions and the technological factors. At the present time, the  economic factors  are favorable to BCC. The economy is doing well and most people are earning a higher income. This allows people to go to school and it also allows parents to send their children to school. Since the economy is doing well, there is more competition in the workplace, so one needs a higher education to move into a better position. Also, people could work less and make the same amount of money, thus freeing up time to attend classes at a school. All of these  economic factors lead to an increase in enrollment. However, these are not the only theories that are found in management. Many ther theories exist, and they all focus on a different aspect of management. The  Quantitative Approach  uses quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations, to improve decision-making. The Organizational Approach  is concerned with the behaviors of people at work. This theory has led to such things as human resources management, teamwork, motivation and leadership qualities. However, there are also some disadvantages that may occur. One disadvantage is that with less supervision, the employees may not work hard, thus decreasing performance. Also, there may be some bitterness between co-workers, decreasing the overall performance of the group will decrease. Instead of doing what is best for the organization, the workers may do things only for their benefit or makes them look good and not care about their peers or the organization. All of these forces in BCC’s general environment are affecting BCC in a positive way. They are causing the enrollment of BCC to increase. As a result, there are many factors in its specific forces that are becoming more complex. These factors are the suppliers, customers, competition, government agencies, and special interest. The suppliers are complex because there is a large number of customers at BCC. Thus, BCC has to ensure that they have proper furniture, classrooms, computers, and other everyday necessities. At the same time, the computer system of the various departments has to be properly maintained to make sure that the student’s records are properly kept. Also, proper maintenance of the buildings has to be maintained. This rapidly changing environment makes the job of any manager extremely difficult. However, she needs to take advantage of the good economy to increase the enrollment at the school as well as try and receive extra funding from the government and special interest groups to expand the school and the programs offered. At the same time, the manger needs to be aware of the competition for the students from the four-year universities and the increasing number of vocational schools. Also, the manager needs to make sure that the staff is doing its most to satisfy the needs of the customers V. DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. Scientific management – also called Taylorism, was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. 2. Administrative management – management approach that concentrates on the total organization. The emphasis is on the development of managerial principles rather than work methods. 3. Top-Level Managers – Typically consist of board of directors, president, vice-president, CEO, etc. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public. 4. Workforce – VI. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This research primarily aims to use the classical approach to management in this researcher's job as manager in a private business enterprise and does not include political, educational, and financial institutions. It focuses on employing Frederick Taylor's and Henry Fayol's management approaches to find out its effects in today's marketing and innovations. CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY I. RESEARCH DESIGN This research is designed in several components: Document analysis, surveys of similar business enterprises, and interviews of managements and workforce, and assessment of findings. II. SAMPLING PROCEDURES The researcher will employ the stratified sampling technique so that the identified business enterprises that will be included in the sample will be represented in the same proportion that they exist in the population to enable the researcher draw appropriate inferences. The researcher also believe that this technique could lead to a more efficient statistical estimates. CHAPTER 3 I. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK According to Fayol's theory, there were six primary functions of management namely; forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and monitoring; and 14 principles of management namely; Division of work, Authority, Discipline. , Unity of command, Unity of direction. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest, Remuneration, Centralisation, Scalar chain, Order, Equity. , Stability of tenure of personnel, Initiative, and Esprit de corps. Frederick Taylor  is often called the â€Å"father of scientific management. Taylor believed that organizations should study tasks and develop precise procedures. As an example, in 1898, Taylor calculated how much iron from rail cars Bethlehem Steel plant workers could be unloading if they were using the correct movements, tools, and steps. The result was an amazing 47. 5 tons per day instead of the mere 12. 5 tons each worker had been averaging. In addition, by redesigning the shov els the workers used, Taylor was able to increase the length of work time and therefore decrease the number of people shoveling from 500 to 140. Lastly, he developed an incentive system that paid workers more money for meeting the new standard. Productivity at Bethlehem Steel shot up overnight. As a result, many theorists followed Taylor's philosophy when developing their own principles of management. Utilizing Frederick Taylor's and Henri Fayol's principles of management, with little modification so as to adapt to the modern world of marketing and innovations, this researcher believes that interpersonal and social clashes will be minimized if not avoided, and a cost-effective, well-organized, competent, and efficient business enterprise would be established. II. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The conceptual framework of this researcher focuses on using the classical approach to management in his job as a manager that aims to establish whether it is still effective in today's modern world of marketing and innovations. The substance of this study will primarily be dependent on the researcher's data that will come from document analysis, surveys, interviews, and assessment of findings. III. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK The purpose of this research is to use the classical approach to management in this researcher's job as manager to find out if the principle is still effective in today's modern marketing and innovations. The type of research design used here is qualitative and institutional in nature. This entails the data analysis which will be extracted from the following: 1) document analysis; 2) surveys; 3) interviews; and 4) assessment of findings. This researcher then collates the data gathered from these areas to ascertain whether the classical approach could still play a vital role in the management of modern systems of business enterprises.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

The Italian Conquest of Abyssinia: How far was the LoN to blame?

Source A – the cartoon entitled â€Å"Dogs of War† – has a message of the ways in which the League of Nations failed. This is depicted through the cartoon in numerous ways. Firstly, the woman (representative of the League of Nations) is shown holding the dog collars which have writing engraved on them. One collar reads Japan while the other collar reads Germany. The fact that they are empty indicates that they have both left the League. When relating that to real events, Japan left the league as a result of them being condemned after the invasion of Manchuria and Germany left through the actions of Hitler (as a result of him disagreeing with the disarmaments). Another way in which the cartoon shows the failure of the League is through the actions of Britain and France. During the conflict between Italy and Abyssinia, Britain and France are shown as just â€Å"looking over†. In simpler terms, Britain and France are shown as if they do not care or just wish to let things go by as if it doesn't matter. This, in effect, undermines the League's objective of dealing with conflicts such as those and creating peace. When relating that to real events, Britain and France didn't really do much as they thought that would be jeopardising their relationship with Italy. By doing so, they reckoned Italy would join forces with Germany and that would make matters worse. As a result, they just stood by and let Mussolini invade and take over Abyssinia. However, it is not just about what Britain and France did; it is also about if they had the ability to do it. The fact that Britain is represented as a bulldog and France as a poodle – stronger than the dogs representing Italy and Abyssinia – shows exactly how they could have dealt with the problem if they wanted to. This relates to how they had the use of collective security to deal with problems, if need be. My point here is that this strengthens my argument above of how Britain and France just didn't want to deal with the conflict. In addition, the League of Nations on the whole is shown as a woman who is not bothered about the conflict. That aside, the fact that the league is represented a woman depicts peace. This is also emphasised through the addition of a dove above her head, which also represents peace. The ironic thing here, though, is that the situation is not one of peace and that the argument has not been dealt with in order to create peace. Instead of actually doing something about it, she is just doing what Britain and France are. Using this, failure has been shown as the cartoon is critical of the league not doing anything about the matter. My final point on this matter relates to what the woman representing the league is actually doing. The cartoonist has shown the woman with her arms tied. It seems as if he/she wants to get across the fact that woman is struggling to control the dogs. In terms of real events, Britain and France signed a Hoare-Laval pact which allowed Italy to take 2/3 of Abyssinia. However, when the public found out about this, it had a bad name on the LoN and so Hoare and Laval denied any knowledge whatsoever. Italy saw this and invaded Abyssinia as they no longer trusted Britain and France. This is a reason for the league having its arms tied. On the other hand, it can be said to be struggling as the league struggled to look after both the members and the conflicts that were going on. This point is reinforced from what is said at the bottom of the cartoon: â€Å"JUST AS WE WERE ALL GETTING ALONG SO NICELY! I WONDER WHAT I HAVE TO DO THIS TIME. † There are a number of ways in which sources A and B differ and allow the viewer understand the problems of peacekeeping in the 1930s. Firstly, a major difference between the sources is how each country is represented. While source A uses dogs to represent countries, source B uses sacks. The fact that dogs are closer to humans than sacks allows source A to have a huge advantage over source B. What I mean by this is that dogs are living and really significant things such as facial expressions and movement can be shown through them. However, those significant aspects cannot be shown through sacks and that is what allows a viewer to understand the cartoon better. For example; Italy and Abyssinia are shown to be having an argument of some sort. We notice that it is an argument from the facial expression of Abyssinia. In addition, they are in each other's face and in positions that are most likely when in a fight. This cannot be done with sacks and so source A is more understanding in showing the problems in this aspect. Likewise, in source A, the LoN is represented as a woman and things such as her movements can be shown (she is shown with her hands tied) whereas, in source B, the LoN is represented as a cart and that cannot be shown here. However, like source A, source B does have aspects that help understand the problems. One good aspect in my opinion is the showing of which countries are more likely to leave than others. A great example of this is how Great Britain and France are solid up the top whereas Italy is on the verge of falling off. This relates well to how Italy didn't have faith in the League after the pact because they felt betrayed by France and Britain and also because Mussolini was a fascist and disagreed with a lot of their views. Therefore, it can be said that this helps understand the problem of Italy being upset with the Council (Britain and France) of the LoN. In addition, the fact that the LoN is represented as a cart in source B indicates it is slow and needs to be pushed. This helps understand the slow aspect and an example of this would be how Lytton went out to Manchuria to sort things out really late in November. A good aspect in both sources that help understand the problems is that both show that Japan and Germany have left the league. Despite the fact that they are done in different ways, they both show and help understand the problem of not having 2 major forces in the league. On the other hand, a bad aspect in both would be that neither shows the â€Å"whys†. For example; both sources do not show why Japan and Germany have left the league. This is a major disadvantage as research or own knowledge is required to understand the source to full effect. Finally, something to note here is what the provenance states. Source A is a cartoon from a British magazine but is critical of the fact that Britain just looked on over the conflict between Italy and Abyssinia. On the other hand, source B is a cartoon from a British magazine and is saying that Britain is solely holding the league together, which is untrue as the help of France and other countries is also doing so. From this, we can say that source A is more reliable than source B as source B is biased. In conclusion to this answer, I feel that source A is more useful than source B for understanding the problems of peacekeeping in the 1930s for the sole reason that living creatures are used to represent countries as opposed to sacks. Despite the fact that source B shows how the league was slow and how Italy were about to leave, I still think that what the dogs and the woman show are more crucial in terms of understanding the problems. The fact that the conflict is shown and how Britain, France and the league is not interested are the core points justifies my point. There are ways in which source C would have worried members of LoN and ways in which the league would not be worried much at all. Benito Mussolini states that â€Å"once a decision is taken we march forward and do not turn back! In my opinion, this aspect of the speech would have worried the members of the league as it is implying how ruthless Italy can be/are. When that is put into perspective with the league's actions, things can become very concerning for the league. By mentioning that they will not turn back, whatever the league throws at them will, in effect, not stop Italy. Another reason for the league to be worried relates to what Mussolini says at the end of his speech. In his speech, Mussolini says that â€Å"It is better to live one day as a lion than a hundred years as a sheep! I reckon this would worry members of the LoN because that last part shows how much power means to him. In addition, he may be implying that the sheep are countries of less power such as Abyssinia or other African colonies. The fact that lions eat sheep further indicates his intention of taking hold of the countries/colonies. A reason for the league not to be worried, however, is that Italy showed its weakness in 1920 when it came running to the league after the incident at Corfu. However, this can be counter-argued by the fact that Benito Mussolini did not come into power until 1922. What I mean by this is that Benito's option would have most likely not included the league and so Italy wouldn't seem as weak. Members of the league would not be as worried due to the fact that Italy was on their own at the time and would therefore mean less strength. Once again though, Mussolini was a fascist and would have probably gone to extreme lengths to get an ally. Overall, I think that the members of the LoN would have been worried at his speech for a number of reasons. Firstly, his ruthlessness would have concerned the league as they would not know how to deal with it on occasions. Secondly, the fact that the speech indicates his love for power would also worry the league as they often struggle with situations whereby a powerful country has done something. A perfect example of this is the incident of Vilna. Vilna was awarded to Poland solely on the basis that they were strong/big and the league could do nothing about it, although it originally belonged to Lithuania. Finally, the league would be worried because they would be unsure as to how Mussolini would act. For example; in 1920, Mussolini may have chosen for Italy to use force instead of go to the LoN and that would have worried the league much more. Britain's attitude to Abyssinia is shown in different ways through each source (D and E). In source D, we are given the impression that Britain does not really care much about Abyssinia. It states, â€Å"The suggestions favoured Italy, were acceptable to France, and Eden gave the impression that England might accept them as well. † The fact that the suggestions favoured Italy meant that they didn't favour Abyssinia. Baring this in mind, the source later says â€Å"Eden gave the impression that England might accept them as well. † This meant that he thought England were going to accept the fact that Abyssinia were to be treated unfairly and so this quote indicates Britain do not really care much about Abyssinia. However, to counter-argue that, it can be said that Anthony Eden was a man who always used to try and impress people. This is evident from him being known as â€Å"Lord Eyelashes† – someone who always used to flutter his eyelashes in order to get on the good side of people or to get what he wanted. Using this, it can be said that the impression he gave didn't represent his true feelings or that what his views are may not be the same as the rest of Britain. Despite the fact that – from the provenance – Anthony Eden was charge of the LoN affairs of the British government, whatever he may think may not have been accepted by the public due to different viewpoints. Although Eden gave the impression that Britain may accept it, Britain, on the whole, may have not have actually done so. While Source D was written by an Italian historian, Source E was proclaimed by Sir Samuel Hoare, British Foreign Secretary. Samuel's first sentence in his speech immediately questions my trust of Britain's attitude to Abyssinia. When Hoare states that â€Å"The League stands for collective support of its Covenant (rules)†, what suddenly comes to mind is the Hoare-Laval pact. This was a pact signed between Britain (Hoare), France (Laval) and Italy (Mussolini) that stated Italy could have 2/3 of Abyssinia. While it was considered a reasonable conclusion by Hoare and Laval, the Covenant opposed it and so it reflects Hoare's personality and as to whether he can actually be trusted. However, regardless of his actions, it can be said that Samuel Hoare was a man of high authority considering the fact that he was British Foreign Secretary. In addition, another trustworthy aspect to this speech would be that Hoare was talking to the public and could not lie. Once again though, that can be counter-argued by the fact that he is talking to the LoN and doesn't want to disappoint them by saying negative things about them. By doing so, he could have been the cause of the LoN having an even worse name, which he would then be blamed for. My final point in this question relates to the provenance/details about the source. Source D was written by an Italian historian in 1961. Here, the author and the time play a major part in the reliability of the source. The fact that the source was written many years after and the writer was Italian means that, if – for instance – Italy didn't really like Britain at the time, the writer may have referred to Anthony Eden as â€Å"Lord Eyelashes† instead of something a bit more positive. On the other hand, the speech (Source E) was said by a British person and was said just after the time of the incident. Therefore, if Samuel Hoare hated the LoN years later, nothing would be different in terms of the speech as it has already been made. As mentioned earlier, time plays a huge part in reliability. Time goes on and as it does, memory becomes a less clear vision. What I mean by this is that people tend to forget things or not see them the way they were at the time and so Source D may be different to what had actually happened. Source E, however, cannot be as the speech was actually made at the time. In conclusion to this question, I trust source D more when reflecting Britain's attitude to Abyssinia for a number of reasons. The way I perceive it to be – from what I have learnt/my own knowledge – is that Britain didn't care about Abyssinia all that much as it didn't concern them much. In other words, the consequences of them being invaded didn't really concern affairs with Abyssinia; it just really concerned Italy's power and what they were going to do next. And so, firstly, this is backed up by source D (from my point earlier). Despite the fact that Anthony Eden was a â€Å"weird† man and the provenance could cause unreliability, I feel source E isn't any better. Source E states that Britain (in the LoN) will help Abyssinia and does not tolerate bullying but that is not actually how I feel about the matter. From previous cases, such as the one of Manchuria, the League only condemned Japan and did not act in terms of collective security. And, although Samuel Hoare was talking to the public, can he really be trusted after the pact opposing the Covenant? I think not†¦ There are numerous ways in which sources F & G agree and likewise in ways they disagree. Source F shows an old man on the verge of exiting a small house. He is holding something that is emitting light and the cartoonist has done this to emphasise the fact that the old man/LoN is living in the dark. What can actually be done in the dark is limited and so the cartoonist is trying to show the viewer that the LoN is limited to what it can do. What's more, the LoN is made out to be an old man. When referring something to an old man, the point being made is that it is slow and feeble. So the cartoonist's point here is that the LoN was slow and feeble. A further way in which the cartoonist is critical of the LoN is through the use of the Italian soldier. By making out the Italian soldier as big and armed, the message being sent across is that the old man/LoN cannot do anything about the soldier; all it could possibly do is go back inside and accept what has been said. In simpler terms, the fact that the matter has been settled by Italy should be of no concern to the league as absolutely nothing can be done about it. On the other hand, source G is a speech made by the emperor of Abyssinia, Haile Selassie. During his speech, Selassie stated that: â€Å"On many occasions, I have asked for financial assistance for the purchase of arms. That assistance has been constantly refused me. † This, once again, indicates how limited the LoN is in what it can do and so is a way in which they agree. Another obvious way in which they agree is the fact that they are both critical of the league in their own ways. A final way in which both sources agree relates to the first sentence of Selassie's speech, â€Å"I claim the justice which is due to my people and the assistance promised eight months ago. † Since the assistance promised had not been given to Abyssinia for 8 months, it would be fair to say that the LoN was slow. When put in comparison with the source F, the old man confirms this point. Although, there are a few points that prove the 2 sources agree, there are also a couple that prove the sources disagree. In source G, Haile Selassie says, â€Å"The problem is a much wider one than Italy's aggression. It is the very existence of the League of Nations. † This does not agree with source F as source F does not show the League of Nations being a problem or making matters worse; it just shows it as something that is not really powerful and nimble. In addition, at the end of Selassie's speech, Selassie questions the League of future actions through the last line of his speech, â€Å"Are you going to set a terrible example of bowing before force? † This disagrees with source F as source F does not show, in any way, the LoN actually bowing before force. In conclusion, I go somewhat but not too far in saying that sources F & G agree due to the fact that the points showing agreement between the sources have clearly outweighed the points showing otherwise. The fact that both sources agree in how the league acts (slow and in a limited way), in my opinion, is of more importance than whether the league made matters worse and so my conclusion to this question – from what I have seen from my arguments – is justified. Source H is a speech from Benito Mussolini in 1936. In this part to the essay, I will be answering as to how far I am surprised that the League of Nations did not ban oil sales to Italy. There are ways in which I am surprised and ways in which I am not. Immediately after reading the source, the first thing that surprised me was the fact that Mussolini had said, â€Å"The biggest worry was a ban on selling oil to us. If that had happened in 1935, the invasion of Abyssinia would have halted in a week. † This surprised me because; if we turn back to source C, we'll discover that Mussolini said there that â€Å"once a decision is taken we march forward and do not turn back! † The decision here was to invade Abyssinia but Mussolini just went against his speech in 1935 as he said he would have halted the invasion had the oil ban been imposed. On one hand, I was surprised with the League's actions while, on the other hand, I was not. The reason for me being surprised was that the LoN did not try out something different to prevent the invasion; it just imposed less serious bans. However, I am also not surprised at what the League did due to the fact that the league already had a bad reputation with Italy at the time. Since the Hoare-Laval pact had already been denied (a lie by both Hoare and Laval), Mussolini didn't trust Britain and France anymore and so people would see that imposing an oil ban, for example, would be a perfect way at getting back at them. A further way in which I am not surprised relates to the bad name the league possessed at the time. Had the league put oil bans on Italy, they could have put them in another depression. After the speech of Haile Selassie, putting another country in depression would just strengthen the point about the LoN existing being a problem in itself. What's more, a depression affects other parts of the world as well as Italy as trading becomes more of an issue and so my point here is that the world would have more reason to blame the league. Maybe if the league had a better name would it have imposed those bans. My final point in this question is about how Italy could have reacted if the bans were imposed on them. Since, Mussolini was a fascist; I do not believe the invasion would have halted in a week. Instead, I feel Mussolini would have endeavoured to get oil from other means. A perfect way in which to do so would have been to go to America, as both Italy and America would both be satisfied: Italy would get the oil required while America would see it as a profitable opportunity. In conclusion to this question, I am not really surprised that the LoN did not impose the oil bans on Italy for a number of reasons. Firstly, the fact that the league had such a bad reputation at the time meant that serious bans being put on Italy would have resulted in total blame on it if the consequences were outrageous. In addition, since the LoN did not really like Mussolini (his ideas went against it and the fact that he had found out their plan through the Hoare-Laval pact) meant that oil bans could have been an excuse to get back at Italy. As a result, it was further reason not to impose them! And despite the fact that I am surprised at what Mussolini said about halting the invasion, the League still took into account that Italy could have gotten oil from other means. The sources I have studied are all going to be put to use in the final part of this essay: how far do they collectively prove that the LoN was to blame for Mussolini's conquest of Abyssinia? Source A shows a number of ways in which they prove that the LoN was to blame for the conquest of Abyssinia. Firstly, by having the collars of dogs â€Å"Japan† and â€Å"Germany† empty, the source is trying to get across the message of how the League lost 2 of its most important members that could have made a difference to the outcome of the conquest. In addition, source A shows how Britain and France are not doing anything and so is critical of the fact that they – as council in the LoN – didn't really do anything but look over the invasion. Likewise, source A shows how the entire league is just looking over the invasion as if not bothered and also shows how her hands are tied. The whole idea is to show how the league could not really take care of both its members and the invasion and so is showing how the league failed in this aspect. This is proved from a quote at the bottom of the source: â€Å"JUST AS WE WERE ALL GETTING ALONG SO NICELY! I WONDER WHAT I HAVE TO DO THIS TIME. † One way, in my opinion, in which the source is not critical is through showing that maybe Italy's aggression (and Abyssinia's) was hard to deal with as the league's (woman's) hands are tied. Source B is also critical of the League of Nations in a couple of ways. For starters, the league here is represented as a cart. The fact that this is the case shows how the league was slow and needed to be pushed to keep it going. This relates well to what actually happened as the league were slow in doing something about the invasion, as by the time they could do something, Italy had already invaded Abyssinia. Another way in which it proves the league is to blame is by having Italy almost falling off of the cart. The significance of doing so is to show that, with Italy not fully associated with the league anymore; the league had less control of it and so couldn't really stop future actions. This is as a result of the Hoare-Laval pact, which was – once again – Britain and France's faults. A final way in which source B is critical is through the use of Japan and Germany. By having them off the cart, it is indicating it is easier to push and this is a good indication of the fact that the league found it hard to deal with so many members and problems simultaneously. Therefore, by having members of the league leave, the league works much smoother. Source C, on the other hand, is showing how the league is not really to blame for the conquest. By Mussolini indicating how ruthless he can be, it gives an idea of what the LoN were dealing with. By using terms such as â€Å"it is better to live one day as a lion than hundred years as a sheep†, the message we are getting is that it was not all the league's fault; it was also Italy's aggression that was to blame for the Mussolini conquest. Source D is a source written by an Italian in 1961 and talks predominantly about Anthony Eden, a person in charge of LoN affairs for the British government. This source, in my opinion, shows that the league was to blame for the conquest of Abyssinia. By using the phrase â€Å"Lord Eyelashes†, the writer is trying to get across the message of how the league appointed someone who just did what they did to impress people. In other words, he may have made the wrong decision in agreeing to let the suggestions favour Italy and not Abyssinia just because he wanted to impress Mussolini and others. Therefore, it is showing how the league employed the wrong person for that job, which – most probably did, from the argument I have discussed – drastically change the outcome. Source E, meanwhile, shows supposed positive aspects to the league and so does not show any ways in which the league was to blame for the conquest. This source talks about how the league reacts to things such as â€Å"unprovoked aggression† and states that â€Å"The British government and nation is firm on this principle. † As a result, it can be said that this source does not go far at all in proving that the league was to blame for the conquest of Abyssinia. Source F is a German cartoon published in May 1936, depicting an Italian soldier talking to the LoN (an old man). The soldier says, â€Å"I am sorry to disturb your sleep, but I should like to tell you that you need no longer bother yourself about the Abyssinian business; the matter has been settled. † By stating that he is â€Å"sorry to disturb† the old man's sleep, the cartoonist is showing that the old man was asleep/just been woken up and is living in the dark. The point being made here is that the league, on many occasions, did not really do anything due to the fact that they are actually sleeping. In addition, by making the LoN an old man, it is indicating that the LoN was slow and weak and therefore allowed the conquest to proceed. A final way in which the cartoonist is critical of the league is through the use of the quote. By making the Italian soldier say that â€Å"I am sorry to disturb your sleep, but I should like to tell you that you no longer need to bother yourself†¦ † it seems as if the cartoonist is trying to get the message across of the fact that the soldier has taken responsibility of the league's soldiers and done it a favour. What's more here, by making the Italians solve the matter themselves and having the Italian soldier as bigger than the old man (armed as well) shows exactly how the league could do nothing about the conquest. Likewise, source G is highly critical of the LoN. It is a speech made by Haile Selassie, emperor of Abyssinia at the time. The first way in which Selassie says that the league was to blame is through the first sentence, â€Å"I claim the justice which is due to my people and the assistance promised eight months ago. By using the time phrase â€Å"eight months ago†, it gives us a clear indication of how slow the league was. In addition, by stating that: â€Å"On many occasions, I have asked for financial assistance for the purchase of arms. That assistance has been constantly refused me†, Haile is otherwise saying that the league has its limits to what it can do. In addition to those points, Haile says that the problem is bigger than the aggression of Italy; it is the existence of the LoN. Despite the fact that it is saying that the league in existence is causing all the problems, it is also showing how Italy were also to blame for the conquest. Finally, source H is yet another speech by Benito Mussolini, whereby he says that; if the league had imposed oil bans, he would have halted the invasion. This is critical of the league as it gives me the message that the league should have taken the risk. However, it can also be said that the league was unaware of how to deal with Mussolini or how he would react to the oil ban. Ultimately in this essay, I feel that the sources go very far in proving that the LoN was to blame for the Mussolini conquest. All but 3 of the sources agree with my conclusion and, despite there are even 3, they can all be counter-argued. Firstly, source C shows how ruthless Mussolini was. However, the League of Nations collectively was stronger than him and could deal with whatever he threw (it was more of the fact that they could not be bothered). As a matter of fact, Britain and France on their own could deal with the likes of Mussolini and so the argument for Italy's aggression now seems small. Secondly, source E talks about how the league was meant to deal with issues like unprovoked aggression. However, the fact that Samuel Hoare's character is questionable (after the Hoare-Laval pact) alongside him talking to the LoN (wants to say good things about it) makes me wonder whether this source actually counts. And thirdly, despite the League were unaware of how Mussolini was going to react to the ban, I feel that it should have taken the risk in doing so nevertheless as it had nothing to lose; it had already lost its reputation†¦

Monday, July 29, 2019

British newspapers Essay Example for Free

British newspapers Essay On Friday 25th October 2002, all British newspapers reported on the outcome of the trial of Alastair Irvine, the son of the Lord Chancellor, Derry Irvine. Alastair Irvine, 25 was sentenced to 16 months in prison after pleading guilty to six stalking, vandalism and gun charges arsing from his pursuit of a 19-year-old woman. By comparing the coverage of this story in four national newspapers, we can reach conclusions about their general approach, their choice of content, range of presentation and many aspects of life. It is important to choose a wide spread of newspapers so that all different viewpoints on the story are represented. The newspapers I have chosen are: The Daily Mail, The Daily Star, The Independent, The Guardian and The Times. Both The Daily Mail and The Daily Star are tabloids whilst the rest are all broadsheets. The newspaper that donates the most coverage to the story was The Daily Mail. The first thing you notice with the Mail article is the amount of space devoted to it. The single article takes up a whole page, save a small rather ironic advert entitled ‘Autumn Delights’. The actual column space is a huge fifty-five and a half centimetres, three times more than most of the other papers. Another main feature of the article is the very large picture of Alastair Irvine, which takes up much of the central part of the page. It is a very selectively taken photo, which portrays Alastair Irvine as being mentally insane. The other picture on the page is one of Lord Irvine, Alastair’s father. This is again a photograph chosen specifically to influence the reader. The picture is slanted so that Lord Irvine’s eyes are staring directly into his son’s. In addition, Lord Irvine has a very amused expression set on his face, giving the reader the impression that he is pleased to see his son go to prison. Also, Lord Irvine is dressed in his judge’s gown and some irony that a judge’s son be put in prison. One important thing to note is the Mail’s own view on politics. It is commonly known that The Daily Mail is opposed to New Labour and Mail’s own relationship with the Lord Chancellor. The Lord Chancellor, being a member of the Labour cabinet is likely to be given bad press. However, he has also had a dispute with the Daily Mail’s sister paper, The Mail on Sunday. Lord Irvine criticised The Mail on Sunday after it printed a story about his son’s drug addiction, amongst other things criticizing Lord Irvine’s views on the legalization of cannabis; Lord Irvine took the matter to the press complaints commission. It is obvious that the paper and the Lord Chancellor do not have a very good relationship and why the Daily Mail is taking such a strong opinion on this one particular article. Another thing to note is the power with which the Daily Mail uses the headline. The headline draws immediately to the fact that the writers and most probably the readers are more interested in Lord Irvine rather than Alastair. The headline also uses very emotive words, used to influence the readers’ views. Amongst many other words used in the article, ‘terrorising’ and ‘young lovers’ are used in the headline. The idea that he has terrorised young lovers is a very strong and horrific thought and very strong language. This is used to make us feel that he Alastair Irvine is evil, reinforced by the striking photograph of Alastair Irvine. The strap-line also contains emotive words. Alastair Irvine is described as a ‘drug addict’ and his actions ‘shamed his family’. The idea of Alastair shaming his family is supported by the smile of his father, Lord Irvine. It is also important to concentrate on the actual text used in the article. Usually in a newspaper the first paragraph should briefly summarize the story, however, the Daily Mail article concentrates on the fact that Alastair Irvine is Lord Irvine’s son and that he terrorised ‘young lovers’. The use of more words that are emotive and the focusing on the fact that he is the Chancellor’s son shows quite clearly how the Mail feel about this particular article. The second paragraph also shows the Mail’s own views on the story: ‘Alastair Irvine, 25, pleaded guilty in return for a lenient sentence. ‘ The idea that the sentence given was lenient implies that the paper thought he deserved more and that the crime he committed was very serious compared to the punishment given. There are many examples throughout the Mail article of emotive words and personal feeling. The whole of the next paragraph is used as an example of the writer influencing the readers by the quality of language. All emotive words in this paragraph have been specifically placed here for this reason. The stating of the fact that ‘he could have faced up to 18 years in jail. ‘ Shows again that the Mail think Alastair deserved more than his ‘lenient’ sentence. The Mail also states that Alastair ‘showed no emotion as he was led away’. This again influences us into believing that Alastair was not repentant at all. However, many of us would believe that someone who has just pleaded guilty to a crime may feel repentant and somebody who is likely to face six months in jail would feel emotional. The Daily Mail article continues with words such as ‘obsessed’ and ‘hassle being used throughout the rest of the article. It is clear that the purpose of this article is not, as it should be, to provide news, but to deter from the facts and promote Alastair Irvine and therefore Lord Irvine as a bad person. It is important to study other aspects of the article. The page number this article is on does not reflect the true amount of importance that the Mail intended to place upon it, it being on a mere page seven. Granted other newspapers have had the article on earlier pages but the sheer size and effort put into the article reflect how much the Mail cares about this specific article. The language used in the article is not as simple as it could be however, it is not very complicated and this probably appeals to the readers of the Daily Mail. Overall, it is clear to see how this article has been written in a certain way to influence the reader and to not report the news but to change to news to serve its own purpose needed. This is a classic example of the media affecting the news in a specific way for a specific purpose. The next paper to be studied is The Daily Star. The Daily Star is too a tabloid newspaper. The Daily star article although not as large as the Mail version is still as biased and emotive. The first thing to notice is the Daily Star is the only newspaper present that does not include the words ‘Lord Irvine’ or anything referring to the Lord in the headline. However, the Daily Star headline is much more vague and strong: ‘Stalker son is jailed’ At first glance, this may give us the impression that a son of a stalker has been imprisoned rather than a stalking son has been jailed. The picture shows Alastair looking remarkably depressed with the situation unlike the Daily Mail article. However, the caption under picture bares a likeness to the Mail’s. The word ‘caged’ is used whilst in the Mail article the word ‘Manacled’ was used, both of these words are strong and give the impression that Alastair Irvine is some sort of trapped animal. The first paragraph, now, does describe who Alastair Irvine is. The words Lord Chancellor naturally arrive. The emotive word used in this paragraph is the use of the word ‘love rival’. This gives us the impression of some sort of battle occurring between Alastair and his ‘love rival’. This again is quite an unnecessary word which is used to bring sympathy to the ‘stalked’ ‘love rival’. The language used in the Star article is a lot simpler, than the language used in the Daily Mail, this again appeals to the readers of The Daily Star, who are not expected to have a vast vocabulary. The only cross heading used in the article is a very striking one, ‘Threats’ this gives the reader an impression of the article before they have actually read it and prepares the reader for the severity of the article. However, the content of the article is generally quite good, most of the information quite relevant, save ‘Lord Irvine, a senior member of Government and a close friend of Toney Blair. The article is dotted with the odd emotive word however, nowhere as near as many as the Mail. The column length of the article in the Star is a mere fifteen centimetres, which is far below the average of all the other articles. Overall, apart from the misleading headline, the occasional unnecessary paragraph and the simple use of language The Daily Star provides an informative yet easily understood version of the story. The next paper is not a tabloid but a broadsheet, meant to report the news rather that influence the readers. The Independent does just that. The simple headline gives all the relevant knowledge needed. It tells us why the story is important, mentioning Lord Irvine, how long Alastair has been imprisoned for, and for what reason. The actual font size of the headline is very small compared to the previously discussed articles. The first paragraph is very informative. It tells us of the nature of his plea and of his crime. The giving of his age, followed by the ‘nine-teen year old girl’ may be regarded as a ploy to influence the reader, however, I do not regard it as so. The Independent’s article is the most informative and goes into more detail that reported by any other newspaper. There are very few emotive words included however; the occasional one does turn up. The Independent also reports that the sentence received by Irvine was much lower than he deserved however it does not say it as bluntly as both the Mail and the Star. The Independent talks about his drug problem in detail. It mentions the fact that he actually travelled to California to undergo rehabilitation for his crack-cocaine addiction. It also goes into more detail than the other articles about the nature of his attacks and his threats. The independent talks about the psychological state that Alastair was in and also talks about the importance of this story politically, all with great measures taken to be unbiased and fact providing. The page number of the article shows the relative importance of the article, I personally feel it is a bit too high also the column length of the article at twenty-nine centimetres seams reasonable. The language used in the article is frivolous in places but overall, not too much more complicated that the Star article. This article has one sole purpose alone and that is to report the news and to provide as much information that is possible and relevant. Overall, out of the all the articles The Independent has the most informative article. It is impartial and provides a good insight into the news story. The final newspaper to be discussed is the Guardian. The first thing noticed of the article is the sheer size. It is only a little smaller than the Daily Mail. Noticeable too, however, is the very large picture of a handcuffed Alastair Irvine looking very depressed. The huge headline is simple and similar to the other broadsheets, referring to Lord Irvine and the crime committed. The strap-line however, is less impartial and divulges more into the thoughts of Lord Irvine who wished not to comment. We also note the photograph of Lord Irvine who is looking rather gleeful and again dressed in his judge’s gown. The caption also tells us that the Chancellor is happy that the case has been resolved, implying somewhat that he is happy to see his son go to prison. The actual content of The Guardian’s article is quite impressive also, it divulges into past confrontations between Lord Irvine and The Sunday Mail, and also in Alastair’s drug problem. It mentions the charges and also a speech from the lawyer of Alastair Irvine who states the gratefulness of Alastair on getting off so lightly and the fact that he could not be guaranteed a win by his own lawyer. The article also mentions some politics and shows the gratefulness of the deputy district attorney at the lack of interference by Lord Irvine. This article again has no purpose but to inform the reader of the story with as much impartiality as possible. The story is only on page eight which is quite far back but the grand size of it makes up for its importance. The article is well structured with points interlinking from one to the other and the material covered is excellent with a wide range of points included that were not in other articles. The language is of a reasonable complexity and this also reflects the audience, which it is targeted at. Overall, the article is excellent apart from the few emotive words present, the strap-line’s severity and the unnecessary size of the picture. In this essay, the void between tabloids and broadsheets has clearly been identified. From the extreme tabloid, which provides little useful information but much opinion of The Daily Mail to the extremes of broadsheet with a huge picture and lots of valuable information of The Guardian the progressive change of the articles has been highlighted. By personal favourite article is the Independent’s, being not only informative but also not excessive. Its size is enough for a quick but in-depth guide to the article and does not detract from it with the suggestion of being a difficult read. However, each article has its own niche market, and I, cannot speak for the variety of people who belong to the readers of any of the newspapers. That is someway creates a sense of impartiality, however, being me alone it is all I can offer. In summate, if a variety of people from different cultures were to write this essay the result may be different, not in quality but in content. British newspapers. (2017, Aug 02).

Company analysis of Ooredoo (previously known as Q-tel) Research Paper

Company analysis of Ooredoo (previously known as Q-tel) - Research Paper Example The company is headquartered in Doha, Qatar and is growing ambitiously by capturing the opportunities that exist in the emerging market in the world. The Ooredoo Group operates with a wide range of brands in the communication industry and provides a collection of services which include mobile telephones, broadband, digital technologies and fibre technologies to serve their customer and the business industry. The core vision of Ooredoo is to enrich the lives of the people by being the leading communications company at the international stage. The Ooredoo group is committed to let their customer live their aspiration. This has been achieved for a huge customer base in international societies who are closely connected with their operators. The operators of Ooredoo keep close linkages with the communities and fulfil their daily needs. The markets of Ooredoo are present in Iraq, Indonesia, Oman, Algeria, Tunisia, Kuwait, Maldives, Palestine and Qatar. The chairman of Ooredoo, H.E. Sheikh Abdullah Bin Mohammed Bin Saud Al Thani enjoys the status of minister of state and has been instrumental in implementing effective corporate governance, corporate accountability and maximizing the wealth of its shareholders. In line with the vision statement, Ooredoo has a mission to become the leading international communications company in the world. ... For this Ooredoo maintains underlying ethics of true financial disclosures. Ooredoo group is committed to fulfil its corporate social responsibility by extending support to the communities and groups for charities in Qatar thereby returning the benefits to the society. The group also has a vision of contributing actively to social causes in the field of healthcare, education, sports, environmental aspects and welfare of the society. Ooredoo supports the national program for spreading awareness towards electronic wastes and their disposal techniques which helps in protecting the environment. Apart from that the company sponsors school events, educational projects. Ooredoo also supported construction of a full-fledged kidney dialysis centre in Qatar. As an outcome of adhering to the core values in line with the vision and mission statement, Ooredoo has achieved an eight fold growth from $800 million to $7.5 billion at the end of 2010 under the leadership of its management. Identificati on of stakeholders The stakeholders of the Ooredoo have increased as the company has expanded its operations in several markets all over the world by catering to the emerging needs in telecommunication. Ooredoo being a leading international communications company has both internal as well as the external stakeholders. The chairman of the Board of Directors, the governing body, representatives of the government and representatives of the private sector present in the governing body, the shareholders of the company and the employees of Ooredoo comprise of the internal stakeholders. The framework of policies of the organisation and implementing of those

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Major Factors Influencing the Fast Moving Consumer Goods Dissertation

Major Factors Influencing the Fast Moving Consumer Goods - Dissertation Example According to the statistics, the country improved its net worth of FMCG from an initial $884 million in 2008 to $1 billion in 2011 (Iheduru, 2012). There is high competition in this sector, and this explains why majority of foreign-based firms have become interested in the Nigerian market. Many factors account for this scenario experienced in the Nigerian FMCG market. For example, strong economic growth, relatively political stability, and increased consumerism in the country can explain why FMCG market continues to expand in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the sector has not been immune to challenges, which tend to reverse the gains made in the sector. Some of the challenges arise from insecurity issues, political uncertainties in terms of post-election violence, infrastructural impediment, structural and regulatory bottlenecks, and distribution inefficiency (Iheduru, 2012). Therefore, it is in this state of lack of clarity that information has to be sought regarding Nigeria’s FMCG se ctor, and identify specific factors enhancing the growth of FMCG sector. FMCGs Industry Most literatures depict FMCGs industry to be concerned with production, distribution, and marketing of packaged products to diverse group of consumers. Various factors have been explored, which are perceived to have direct or indirect role in the development and sustenance of FMCG industry. Many of these factors can be categorized as both internal and external and have to do with general business environment (Paul, 2010). Therefore, some of the identified factors, which have made the industry blossom include the cost of operations estimated to be low, availability and utilization of efficient and effective distribution networks, the increasing competition in the sector that motivate many players, and the increasing number of people in different countries has also enhanced consumerism (Paul, 2010). These factors can be used to explain the Nigerian scenario, but other micro-aspects found in the country have to be investigated. In order to find out which specific factors have contribute d to progress of FMCGs industry in Nigeria, survey is conducted on a number of FMCGs in the country and analysis of generated resulted will be undertaken. The understanding is that, effective analysis of the results will clearly show which factors and to what level they have contributed to grow of FMCGs in Nigeria. How FMCGs companies in Nigeria try to build on their market share Increasing market share is one of the critical aspects players in the FMCGs industry try to achieve. Given that it was earlier identified that competition in FMCGs sector is increasing, the participants have innovated diverse methods and strategies to stay ahead of the rest. In other words, achieving competitive advantage and remaining in a win-win situation requires market participants (sellers) to identify the most appropriate and best strategies. For example, earlier studies that have been done have shown that, in order to create and increase market share, FMCGs firms adopt some of the following market s trategies. The firms innovate and market strong product brands as compared to their competitors (Gough 2004). Product brand is one of the most frequently and thoroughly used strategy by FMCGs firms to identify, penetrate, and control markets in different regions in which they operate. By owning and promoting strong brands, firms are able to resonate well with a particular market niche, which subsequently leads to increase in market share, a fact

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Immigration Law of Arizona Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Immigration Law of Arizona - Assignment Example The Supreme Court could admit the case or decline to take it on. This paper will discuss the likelihood of the Supreme Court taking the case and the possible decision it may make as well as the impact of that decision. Likelihood of Supreme Court to Admit the Case The decision whether the Supreme Court should undertake the case is both constitutional and policy based. This is a case that has been very controversial with dissenting decisions from inferior courts. The Arizona immigration law does not only involve all the states of America but it is also a matter of international concern on human rights. Upon its enactment, several UN experts and special rapporteurs raised strong concerns on its legality under international law. The legislation conflicts with several international law instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which US became a party to in 1992. But most importantly, the law has serio us implications on the obligation of US to comply with the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), which requires party states to take all measures in order to prevent, ban and condemn all manner of racial discrimination, (Lewis, 2011). Under the convention, the US is also required to ensure that all its agencies comply with these provisions. Therefore, it is important that such a global matter should be dealt with by the highest judicial body of the land which is the Supreme Court. The court should also take up the case so as to clarify constitutional issues arising from the case such as the Supremacy Clause that is dealing with the preemptive clause. The Supreme Court being the highest tribunal in the land has the ultimate responsibility of interpreting the constitution for the people of America, (Anonymous, 2011). It acts as the guardian to uphold the constitution and under this responsibility it has the responsibility to formall y overturn unconstitutional decisions from lower courts through judicial review to ensure constitutional supremacy is maintained at all times. Further, at this stage when the nation is under the process of enacting immigration laws to solve the inherent problems facing the country on the issue, it is the role of the Supreme Court to step in and provide other states on how to draft their immigration laws. The decision of the Supreme Court on immigration will serve to direct the other states on how immigration legislations should be drafted generally without conflicting with the constitutional and most of all the fundamental rights of individual citizens. Besides, its decision will form precedents to be adopted by lower courts and will go a long way down the history of the immigration issues. With all these considerations, the Supreme Court cannot afford to leave such an important matter in the hands of the lower courts. It has to step in and provide the way forward not just for the c ountry of the US but also the global world in general. Likely Decision Even though most provisions of the law are legally unobjectionable, the SB 1070 contains some unconstitutional parts which are sections 2(B), 6, 3 and 5(c). The first contention is the requirement of the SB 1070 that the immigration officers determine the status of the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Tesco(supermarket) lost market share Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Tesco(supermarket) lost market share - Essay Example On the other while some of the players in this industry such as Waitrose have been expanding the number of stores, Tesco has been doing very little with regard to their geographical accessibility. Despite the extension of floor space having been a major driver in the growth of Tesco in the past, they have not been doing it as aggressively as they used to do before. There are a number of things that Tesco Supermarket can do to regain market share. Tesco might consider staying relevant through innovation. One of the best ways through which a business organization can remain competitive is by identifying emergingtrends, trends before their competitors do (Kotler&Kotler 2012, p. 119). This will be possible if they pay close attention to the things that change in the lifestyle of their customers. Tesco supermarket should also consider getting in touch with their customers. At this age public relations is not all about receiving the complaints of customers. However, it has developed to the extent that business has to seek to know some of the things that they customers wish they could get from supermarkets. They should make sure that they do not make any assumptions about what their customers want, but get but creates avenues for continuous communication between them and their customers (Shafer 2011, p. 91). They should consider acting on the possible recommendations of their customers as soon as possible. Tesco supermarket should also consider simplifying the buying process. When buying processes are deemed to be lengthy and complicated, many customers will always opt for somewhere where the process is simpler. Accessibility is always important for any chain of stores. Customers might be willing to purchase from a certain supermarket, but fail to do so because the supermarket does not have any stores in their locality (Gordon 2002, p. 201). Given that Tesco has not been recently active in terms of expansion, it would be beneficial for them to start

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Contemporary Middle Eastern History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Contemporary Middle Eastern History - Essay Example I believe that some of his ideas are a stark reflection of the underlying reality and can offer some insight into present religious/cultural relations. That is, there is actually a tension of sorts between identifiable groups of humanity in the present day. However, Samuel Huntington makes a gross oversimplification of things without an in-depth understanding of the nature of present-day conflicts and the complex characteristics of cultures. So, there is no ‘clash of civilizations’ as such. Significantly, his theory fails to satisfactorily explain the post September 11th world. Samuel Huntington outlines a future where the â€Å"great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural† (Huntington 1993:22) and on this basis divides the world into seven civilizations. I agree with his broad idea of the significance of culture and that this is the basis upon which humankind can be differentiated. But, his differentiation is largely based on religion with some exceptions and the fact that he has ignored Buddhism altogether. Also, he puts Israel together with the West, thereby combining Jews with Christians, which is strange if we look at history. He does correctly identify nation-states as a relatively new phenomenon, and that economic and military power drives conflicts. He is also correct in saying that the concept of a global or universal culture is a relatively recent on originating in the West and that the West considers its own policies as positive for the rest of the world and therefore to be imposed upon it. As far as human rights is concerned this does not hold water because Islam conferred human rights over a thousand years ago, so this is more a reflection of the changed times rather than differences. Also, we could give examples of the not too distant past when for example inter-racial problems were severe, civil and women’s rights was obtained. So, America has no strong foundations

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Healthcare Fraud Resulting in Fewer Referrals to Homecare Services Research Proposal

Healthcare Fraud Resulting in Fewer Referrals to Homecare Services - Research Proposal Example In fact, considering that the data on direct losses that is available regarding health care fraud today quite significantly underestimate the real value of the cost. While the healthcare fraud may not be very pronounced in the public domain currently, it may not be ignored as it has a potential of growing to astronomic levels given time and left unattended. Fraud has undermined the value of studies on healthcare practices, organization, and financing. In the healthcare sector, fraud has presented itself as a multi-faceted demon involving both individuals and corporate organizations. While some officials engaging in the provision of fraudulent or inaccurate data with an aim of getting corporate approval, some organizations engage in the withholding of data that may damage their reputation, the reputation of their products or researchers. The effects of health care fraud have far-reaching effects on the overall performance of the sector. Cases of fraud have for example impacted negatively the relationship between physicians and patients, and by extension, their relatives. In a bid to curb the problem of health care fraud, a number of measures have been introduced by the US government. The new measures have also impacted the way physicians provide services to patients – both in-patient and out-patient. This being the case, it may be postulated that healthcare fraud has had an impact on referrals to healthcare services. This research seeks to establish the existence of a correlation between health care fraud and the referral to home care services. Homecare caters for a wide range of social, medical and support services. Homecare services are entitled to people such as; the elderly, disabled people, those with long-term health conditions, terminally ill, chronically ill and to people who are recovering (Piper, Roberto, and Wacker, 2002).  

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Human Resource Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 19

Human Resource Management - Essay Example ue added activities that the HRM performs such as training; Learning and development; planning, performance appraisal; compensation and rewards & recognition. (Abu & Kamrul, 2000) For many organizations, the selection process consists of short listing the candidates and selecting the best. Different positions in the organization would require different kinds of selection criteria or technique. It is the duty of the HR to decide which technique needs to be used to recruit the best person and the selection technique will depend on number of criteria’s such as skills, characteristics, domain familiarity required for the position to be filled. (Choosing selection techniques, n.d) Selection of a candidate should not be just based on the selection method but should also involve 2 or more techniques to assess the skill set, communication, analytical knowledge and domain knowledge. Interviews can be done in different ways and this depends on the how the interviewer would want to acquire information. There are different selection techniques and the organization can use more than one selection technique to recruit the employees. This is the most relaxed form of recruiting an employee, by having a friendly chat. This method can be exercised to observe candidates’ manners and activities in a less formal environment. This method is usually used as one part of the selection process and this helps the interviewer in assessing the ability and the suitability of the job and also to evaluate if the candidate would be adding value to the organization. (Types of Interview, n.d) Some companies take a structured approach to interviews. The same sets of questions are asked to the candidates to assess how good they are against the other candidates .This method is very useful in case the interviewer wants to assess the presentation and communication skills of the candidate. This method involves assessing skills, attributes, behavioral patterns by giving the candidates some

Ap Nsl Essay Example for Free

Ap Nsl Essay What are the difficulties in using the â€Å"wall of separation† principle? 5. List and explain the circumstances when the Supreme Court has ruled that freedom of speech may be limited. 6. Define the â€Å"clear-and-present-danger test,† libel, preferred position, prior restraint, imminent danger, and symbolic speech. You may just want to put these straight onto your flashcards 7. Summarize the Supreme Court’s changing interpretations of how to protect both the due process rights of accused criminals and to preserve the safety of the community. Define the exclusionary rule and the â€Å"good faith exception. †. Chapter 19 Reading Outline 1. What does the book say is the pertinent question regarding civil rights? 2. What were the strategies that black leaders followed in order to obtain civil rights? Once basic rights such as voting and integration had been obtained, what issues did civil rights leaders focus on? 3. Briefly outline the steps in the NAACP’s strategy in the fight against segregated schools and indicate the success they had in the courts and in implementing desegregation. . What was the issue concerning desegregation vs. integration? How has this issue been resolved? 5. What were the four developments that made it possible to pass civil rights bills? 6. What accounts for the change in attitude in Congress towards civil rights issues from the 1960s to the present?   How has the Supreme Court changed in its attitudes towards equal rights for women from the early 20th century to today? 8. What are the two standards the Court uses today to in considering sex discrimination cases? What is the debate between those who support â€Å"equality of result† and those who support â€Å"equality of opportunity†? 9. What are the criteria that the Supreme Court has adapted in defining strict scrutiny of any law involving racial preferences? 10. Briefly summarize the highlights of the government’s response to abortion. How did activists for the disabled manage to get The Americans with Disabilities Act passed? 12. Briefly summarize what is included in the law and the objections that some have had to the law.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Effects of Music Essay Example for Free

Effects of Music Essay Music and Its Effects on Our Emotions: Can Music Really Change Your Mood? Music can control a much larger part of your life than most people would like to believe. Music can affect us in ways in which were not even aware of, and for this reason, music is simply amazing. There is a large number of studies behind music. Not even just the typical music you hear on the radio or that you download from the Internet, but any sounds and the way they can affect your mood and reflect your personallity. It has been proven that certain types of music can evoke sadness, while others can give you an excitement. Music is used in millions of places for this reason. Advertisements. Advertisements and movies are based around the audio! Certain types of music are more likely to evoke emotions in people which will in turn make them feel a certain way. Sometimes this is great for producers in the economy because they can use music in their advertisements to help produce more profits, because people will become much more interested in the products that theyre offering. This works the same in the film industry. The film industry is interested in inflicting some sort of mood on its audience. If a movie is able to inflict an emotion into people, then the movie is looked upon as a much better movie, and therefore is more likely to make more money. Music can really affect more parts of the economy than you would ever even take into consideration. One amazing thing, that Im sure youve never even stopped to think about, is the music in a casino. They tend to play very uplifting music, music that will make you want to stay longer. Theoretically, the longer you stay in a casino, the more money the casino will make from you. The casino wants to keep you in their business for as long as they can. Music is one way the owners can go about this. Another irrelevant yet interesting method they have is to release scents that cause people to become more satisfied with what theyre doing, and will make them in turn be more comfortable in the environment and want to stay longer, making the casino more money in the long run. Pop, lighter rock, and most dance music tends to be a very uplifting type of music. If youre ever looking for a booster, listen to some of this music! I actually enjoy listening to this music every day before going to take classes, because it lifts my spirit and helps me make it through the day. Downbeat music such as death metal and rap music tends to affect peoples emotions in a much darker form. However, this is all personal preference and you cannot  base all of this on my opinion. Overall, music has a much greater affect on you than you would believe. Experiment. Listen to new music all the time. See what music gives you chills down your spine. See what music you cant understand and hate. Theres something out there for everyone. The Effects of Music In some way, music affects everyone. Whether it is, a young girl’s favorite song on the radio, a college student’s escape from reality or a form of entertainment to a married couple, music brings everyone together. Music definitely affects the lifestyles of people in many different ways. The diverse styles of music makes people look and act differently. Music has many different levels. To me, levels meaning; the more independent and progressive the music is, the more the fans take it to the extreme. Music creates style. It causes people to talk, act, and dress the way they do. I hope to discover how much music influences people, especially college students. Also, the more fascinated they are the more influences it has to them. I would like to prove, that to some, music is nothing more than the pop song playing on the radio in the car, and to others, it is a major part of their life. It is very interesting to me, to learn the effects music has toward people. Music impacts everyone in some way (positive or negative), but I think it impacts college students the most. I would like to know the reasons people are listening to music they buy and support. Also, the reasons certain groups are more popular than others. I used a couple various methods of research to conduct my research. I wrote up ten surveys with some questions about gender, age, what they buy, do they attend concerts, and do they support local music. I passed these surveys out to completely random students so there was no imbalance of the results. I hope to find out certain things like: are males affected more than females from music; who buys more clothing/ accessories; is local music important to college students. Another form of research was done by making some observations. I observed places that college students live. I observed a few of my friends apartments very closely and also observed a couple other houses that I was  invited to over the past month. By doing this, I hope to generalize what they like and how it influences them. For example, posters of music groups hanging everywhere will indicate a more of an influence than paintings, by say Picasso. Clothing, jewelry, and actual speech from people may also provide some interesting details. While making these observations, I had also done a couple interviews. A couple were formal, sit-down interviews and the others were just conversations that I thought would be helpful to making my research complete. After giving some thought to my results, I decided to add a section about my personal history. Throughout my life music has affected me in many different ways. It has helped me through some very important decisions, such as, how I feel, who I am with, where I am going to go. When I was ten years old, I got my first guitar. It was an acoustic guitar. I loved to play it, but dreaded going to the lessons. My parents forced me because I couldn’t play a single note. After a year or two things started to come together and I could play some songs. Then I decided to purchase an electric guitar. For me, this was the greatest thing to ever happen to me. I played everyday at any time that I could. My favorite group was the Beastie Boys. My friends and I would pretend we were them and put on shows pretending to be them. As I got older, I would purchase any music that I could; cassette tapes, records, videos, posters, anything that dealt with music. Around seventh or eighth grade, I purchased a used drum set. My other friends all played, so we decided to form a band. We would practice in the garage as much as often until my parents said enough, until it became an obsession. We played a couple of parties (nothing big, because this was the eighth grade), but still a major part of my life at the time. One day during practice, I remember my good friend, the lead singer, telling me booked a real gig, in downtown Pittsburgh. We got a set ready and about a month to practice our songs. The place was called the Electric Banana, it was real dive bar. Most people there were friends and family, but still a nice turnout. Since then I haven’t been playing in a band, but still love making music. Most of my friends are really into music too. We swap music  with each other and talk about it all the time. When I switched schools in high school, music really helped me make some friends. Without music my life would be totally different and a lot more boring, so I’m glad it turned out this way. I am very happy with the results that I got from the surveys. There were ten surveys filled out. Of the ten, six were females and four were males. Eight of the ten all liked rap/hip hop music or said rap along with some other forms. The other two liked rock, punk, or emo. No one put classic rock as their choice (which I found to be very interesting, because I like classic rock). There were two other questions I found to be very much related. Everyone that collects music, any form, (CD, cassette tape, or vinyl) has clothing and/or accessories that support music, for instance, posters, T-shirts, and hats. Four out of ten said they regularly attend concerts. I was very pleased to hear that eight of ten support local musicians/bands. I am a music lover, (as you know) so the local scene is very important to me. Here is a graph I constructed from the surveys. Females Males 60% 40% The interviews came out to be very useful also. I talked to a music lover/musician/collector. His name was Neil and he was very cooperative. We talked about the unusual styles of music he liked. He has a very wide range of music in his collection. We talked about some of his favorite artists, some being Pittsburgh based groups. He loves live music and goes to as many shows as possible. He said â€Å"it’s hard to get to places without a car and with classes† He also said â€Å"I just saw The Roots play for my sixth time last week, at a little place in Oakland.† We were talking about how they are definitely one of his favorites, if he had to pick. I asked him why he was so into music. He replied â€Å"It’s a stress reliever. It takes my mind off school, work, and people’s pettiness.† Another interview that I performed was not as formal. This one was with my dad at the dinner table. It was pretty short and to the point. I asked him if he likes music. He said â€Å"No.† I then asked him if he ever listens to it and he said â€Å"No, when I am in the car I listen to the news or talk radio and when I’m home I’m either working or watching TV.† After doing this research, I realized that by doing interviews you can really feel the emotion from the answers compared to reading a survey. I think that interviews did help me make certain things easier to understand on the survey. The Effects of Music on Peoples Emotions By Rachel Mattison, eHow Contributor , last updated July 02, 2012 Movie producers and recording artists use music to manipulate the emotions of audiences to feel everything from excitement to sadness during movies and performances. No one can deny that music has either positive or negative effects on the emotions of listeners. However, music therapy or the study of music’s impact on emotions examines how music cause positive changes in listeners and patients for areas including early childhood development, healing and recovery, and overcoming negative emotions. 1. Early Childhood Development * Music plays an important role in early childhood emotional and intellectual development, according to information compiled by Brad Kennedy and Jennifer Durst. Their research confirms that even while in the womb, babies can tell the differences between certain types of music. Also called prenatal stimulation this technique has many positive effects including higher levels of intelligence and creativity, along with the ability to calm down when listening to music. Suggested usages for music in early childhood development include teaching children to analyze songs so they can learn how to express and identify their emotions, though processes, behaviors and situations as a way of developing cognitive and motor skills. Healing and Recovery * The American Music Therapy Organization states music therapy can  allow emotional intimacy with families and caregivers, relaxation for the entire family, and meaningful time spent together in a positive, creative way.† Additional studies show that music therapy can cause changes in physiology by releasing brain chemicals including melatonin, norephinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin and prolactin, which help to reduce depression, regulate mood and make patients feel calm and more able to sleep. Doctors have used music therapy to help stroke, cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s patients improve. Dr. Suzanne Hasner says head trauma and dementia patients retain music ability because â€Å"deep in our long-term memory is this rehearsed music. It is processed in the emotional part of the brain, the amygdala. Here’s where you remember the music played at your wedding, the music of your first love, that first dance. Such things can still be remembered even in people with progressive diseases. It can be a window, a way to reach them. * Negative Emotions and Fear Management * Dr. Zbigniew Kucharski, from the Medical Academy of Warsaw, has studied the effects of music when used for fear management in dental patients. He discovered that children who listened to 30 minutes of music preceding and following dental procedures were less likely to experience negative feelings. Another study, â€Å"Quantification of the effects of listening to music as a noninvasive method of pain control,† conducted in 1992 found that relaxing music helped to reduce anxiety and pain in patients undergoing certain medical procedures including painful gynecological procedures and pediatric surgical burn units. How Music Affects Us and Promotes Health Music is one of the few activities that involves using the whole brain. It is intrinsic to all cultures and can have surprising benefits not only for learning language, improving memory and focusing attention, but also for physical coordination and development. Of course, music can be distracting if its too loud or too jarring, or if it competes for our attention with what were trying to do. But for the most part, exposure to many kinds of music has beneficial effects: 1Music heals Effective therapy for pain Overall, music does have positive effects on pain management. Music can help reduce both the sensation and distress of both chronic pain and postoperative pain. Listening to music can reduce chronic pain from a range of painful conditions, including osteoarthritis, disc problems and rheumatoid arthritis, by up to 21% and depression by up to 25%, according to a paper in the latest UK-based Journal of Advanced Nursing29. Music therapy is increasingly used in hospitals to reduce the need for medication during childbirth, to decrease postoperative pain and complement the use of anesthesia during surgery30. There are several theories about how music positively affects perceived pain: * 1. Music serves as a distractor * 2. Music may give the patient a sense of control * 3. Music causes the body to release endorphins to counteract pain * 4. Slow music relaxes person by slowing their breathing and heartbeat Reducing blood pressure By playing recordings of relaxing music every morning and evening, people with high blood pressure can train themselves to lower their blood pressure and keep it low31. According to research reported at the American Society of Hypertension meeting in New Orleans, listening to just 30 minutes of classical, Celtic or raga music every day may significantly reduce high blood pressure. Medicine for the heart music is good for your heart. Research shows that it is musical tempo, rather than style. Italian and British researchers32 recruited young men and women, half of whom were trained musicians. The participants slipped on head phones and listened to six styles of music, including rap and classical pieces, with random two-minute pauses. As the participants kicked back and listened, the researchers monitored their breathing, heart rates and blood pressure. The participants had faster heart and breathing rates when they listened to lively music. When the musical slowed, so did their heart and breathing rates. Some results were surprising. During the musical pauses, heart and breathing rates normalized or reached more optimal levels. Whether or not a person liked the style of music did not matter. The tempo, or pace, of the music had the greatest effect on relaxation. Speeds Post-Stroke Recovery A daily portion` of ones favorite pop melodies, classical music or jazz can speed recovery from debilitating strokes, according to the latest research. When stroke patients in Finland listened to music for a couple of hours each day, verbal memory and attention span improved significantly compared to patients who received no musical stimulation, or who listened only to stories read out loud, the study reports33. Chronic headaches migraine remedy Music can help migraine34 and chronic headache35 sufferers reduce the intensity, frequency, and duration of the headaches. Music boosts immunity Music can boost the immune function. Scientists explain that a particular type of music can create a positive and profound emotional experience, which leads to secretion of immune-boosting hormones22. This helps contribute to a reduction in the factors responsible for illness. Listening to music or singing can also decrease levels of stress-related hormone cortisol. Higher levels of cortisol can lead to a decreased immune response23-24. 2Effects of music on the brain Music enhances intelligence, learning and IQ The idea that music makes you smarter received considerable attention from scientists and the media. Listening to music or playing an instrument can actually make you learn better. And research confirms this. Music has the power to enhance some kinds of higher brain function: * Reading and literacy skills11-13 * Spatial-temporal reasoning14-15 * Mathematical abilities16-17 Even children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder benefit in mathematics tests from listening to music beforehand. *Emotional intelligence The Mozart effect Earlier it has been thought that listening to classical music, particularly Mozart, enhances performance on cognitive tests. However, recent findings18 show that listening to any music that is personally enjoyable has positive effects on cognition. Music improves memory performance The power of music to affect memory is quite intriguing. Mozarts music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activates the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an instrument or singing, cause the brain to be more capable of processing information. Listening to music facilitates the recall of information19. Researchers have shown that certain types of music are a great keys for recalling memories. Information learned while listening to a particular song can often be recalled simply by playing the songs mentally. Musical training has even better effect than just listening to classical music. There is clear evidence20, that children who take music lessons develop a better memory compared with children who have no musical training. Note: For learning or memory performance, its important that music doesnt have a vocal component; otherwise youre more likely to remember the words of the background song than what youre supposed to be recalling. Music improves concentration and attention Easy listening music or relaxing classics improves the duration and intensity of concentration in all age groups and ability levels. Its not clear what type of music is better, or what kind of musical structure is necessary to help, but many studies have shown significant effects21. 3Music improves physical performance Music improves athletic performance Choosing music that motivates you will make it easier to start moving, walking, dancing, or any other type of exercise that you enjoy. Music can make exercise feel more like recreation and less like work. Furthermore, music enhances athletic performance6-8! Anyone who has ever gone on a long run with their iPod or taken a particularly energetic spinning class knows that music can make the time pass more quickly. The four central hypotheses explaining musics facilitation of exercise performance include: * Reduction in the feeling of fatigue * Increase in levels of psychological arousal * Physiological relaxation response * Improvement in motor coordination Music improves body movement and coordination Music reduces muscle tension and improves body movement and coordination25-26. Music may play an important role in developing, maintaining and restoring physical functioning in the rehabilitation of persons with movement disorders. 4Music helps to work more productively Fatigue fighter Listening to upbeat music can be a great way to find some extra energy. Music can effectively eliminate exercise-induced fatigue9 and fatigue symptoms caused by monotonous work10. Keep in mind that listening to too much pop and hard rock music can make you more jittery than energized. Vary what you listen to and find out what type of music is most beneficial for you. You could try classical music one day, pop the next day and jazz the third. Music improves productivity Many people like to listen to music while they work and I am certainly one of them. How about you? Did you know you can perform better at your work with music? Whilst there may be many reasons for wishing to listen to music in the workplace, it really improves your productivity27! According to a report in the journal Neuroscience of Behavior and Physiology28, a persons ability to recognize visual images, including letters and numbers, is faster when either rock or classical music is playing in the background. 5Music calms, relaxes and helps to sleep Relaxing music induces sleep Relaxing classical music is safe, cheap and easy way to beat insomnia1. Many people who suffer from insomnia find that Bach music helps them. Researchers have shown that just 45 minutes of relaxing music before bedtime can make for a restful night2. Relaxing music reduces sympathetic nervous system activity, decreases anxiety, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rate and may have positive effects on sleep via muscle relaxation and distraction  from thoughts. Music reduces stress and aids relaxation Listening to slow, quiet classical music, is proven to reduce stress3. Countless studies have shown that musics relaxing effects can be seen on anyone, including newborns. One of the great benefits of music as a stress reliever is that it can be used while you do your usual deeds so that it really doesnt take time. How does music reduces stress? * Physical relaxation. Music can promote relaxation of tense muscles, enabling you to easily release some of the tension you carry from a stressful day. * Aids in stress relief activities. Music can help you get into the zone when practicing yoga, self hypnosis or guided imagery, can help you feel energized when exercising and recover after exercising, help dissolve the stress when youre soaking in the tub. * Reduces negative emotions. Music, especially upbeat tunes, can take your mind off what stresses you, and help you feel more optimistic and positive. This helps release stress and can even help you keep from getting as stressed over lifes little frustrations in the future. Researchers discovered4 that music can decrease the amount of the cortisol, a stress-related hormone produced by the body in response to stress. 6Music improves mood and decreases depression Prescription for the blues Musics ability to heal the soul is the stuff of legend in every culture. Many people find that music lifts their spirits. Modern research tends to confirm musics psychotherapeutic benefits5. Bright, cheerful music (e.g. Mozart, Vivaldi, bluegrass, Klezmer, Salsa, reggae) is the most obvious prescription for the blues. The 5 Weirdest Ways Music Can Mess With the Human Brain By: C. Coville, Kathy Benjamin February 11, 2011 1,619,046 views The entire reason music exists is because of its almost magical ability to push your buttons. An upbeat song gets you going, a sad song makes you cry and drink. But the more science studies musics effect on the human brain, the more bizarre things we discover. For instance #5. It Changes Your Ability to Perceive Time  old music the stuff you hear on the line when you call everyone from the bank to your local bail bond agency didnt fall into Americas phone lines by accident. Its designed specifically to reduce the amount of time you think youre waiting, so that youre less likely to hang up in anger. Other places that involve waiting, such as doctors offices, use a similar trick. Time shrinkage is also the aim of most retail stores, which is why youll rarely enter a mall, supermarket or clothing store without hearing some sort of music in the background. How the hell does music do that? To understand why exactly music makes it seem like less time has passed, think of the human brain as a mountain lion that is eating a bag of money. It doesnt matter what the zookeepers distract it with food, shiny objects or just shouting and yelling. All that matters is that they give another zookeeper the chance to sneak up and retrieve the money while the lion is busy deciding which one of them to eat. Similarly, when your brain is steadily distracted, youll be less likely to notice things around you in detail, and this includes the passage of time. Our brains have limited input capacity, and when something else is using up that capacity, were less likely to think things like, Ive been standing in line to get Richard Molls autograph for three goddamn hours or Do I really need this Garfield alarm clock? But it works the opposite way, too. In some situations, listening to music can actually expand perceived time. For example, listening to music while performing tasks that require concentration will usually cause us to overestimate the amount of time that has passed. The theory is that as your mind switches back and forth between perception of the music and concentration on the challenging tasks, it forms separate events, or distinct memories. When your brain thinks about what youve been doing for the past hour, youll remember more of these events and recall that the hour was quite long. Experiments have found that time also expands when were listening to familiar music that we dislike. When we hear the opening chords of a song, our brain remembers the whole thing and immediately skips ahead and plays it mentally. This fake mind-music is  extremely vivid, working on exactly the same parts of the brain as actual music does. So the effect is that you take a few moments to vividly imagine that youre sitting through five minutes of that damn New Radicals song before you come back to reality only to realize that you still actually have to sit through it. #4. It Taps Into Primal Fear OK, imagine how you would sound for a second if you saw your friend Jason across the street and wanted to get his attention by yelling his name. Now imagine you see your friend Jason across the street, suddenly realize a car is careening down the road about to hit him, and shout his name to warn him.Despite the fact that you are yelling the same thing both times, even in your head you can hear how the two sound different. Human beings have a very good, very nuanced sense of what kind of noise indicates a greeting and what kind of noise indicates you are about to be mauled by a honey badger. And that sense is being used against you in every scary movie you have ever seen. There is a reason that horror films scare the crap out of us, and its not just the creepy settings, dramatic buildup and sudden reveal of the bad guy RIGHT BEHIND YOU. Its the music. How the hell does music do that? There are certain sounds that humans will automatically associate with sudden and painful death because they tap into our evolutionary fear of the screams of other animals (and other human beings). Screams of fear in almost any animal are made up of what scientists have dubbed discordant noises. Any noise that makes you feel very unpleasant falls into this category. We know if we hear other living things making those discordant noises that we have to get the fuck out, because something bad is going to happen. Movie directors know this and make good use of it when deciding on the score for a film. That dramatic buildup and subsequent scary reveal is almost always accompanied by really freaky music or somebody screaming his ass off (or both). But this technique is hardly limited to horror movies. For instance, in his original draft of The Social Network, Andy Sorkin wanted a song called Love of the Common People to play over the opening credits scene. Heres what that would have looked like: That poppy calypso music makes you feel that everything is dandy. Sure, Mark Zuckerberg has just been dumped,  but its all OK! Hes running through the Harvard campus and is about to invent Facebook and become a billionaire. Yay!Listen to that lower-level background music throughout. It sounds like random, angry notes played behind a simple piano tune, and those notes are creating discordant sound. Suddenly youre apprehensive, feeling like something really bad is about to happen (were talking getting sued for $64 million bad). So next time youre getting a little too freaked out by a movie, remember that muting the television is a far better decision than looking away. #3. It Makes You Stronger Its no secret that many people prefer to listen to music when they work out. But music doesnt just make physical activity more pleasant it actually makes our physical performance measurably better. When listening to music, people are able to hold heavy weights for longer than when theyre standing in silence. They can also complete sprints in smaller amounts of time and are even able to reduce their oxygen intake. How the hell does music do that? Similar to the time-perception effect we referenced above, one element is just plain old distraction. Obviously, if your mind is listening to music, its not thinking about how much your legs hurt or how much longer youve got to run before the treadmill makes that final beeping noise. But theres much more to it than that. First, theres synchronicity. When you match your movements to a steady musical tempo, you spend less time and effort on the inefficient slowing down and speeding up that happens when youre going by your own rhythm. Music also increases the incidence of flow states states of meditation-like calm in which everything works right for an athlete and that is strongly linked to enhanced performance. Music can even make you feel less pain. Patients listening to music after surgery need less sedatives, report less pain and have lower blood pressure. As if thats not impressive enough, doctors have found that specially selected melodic music dramatically reduces stress in patients during unsedated brain surgery. In some cases, music caused patients to relax so much that many of them fell into a deep sleep, while people sliced into their exposed brains with fucking scalpels. And even if youre lucky enough to be asleep during  surgery, theres a good chance the doctors working on you are listening to music, since most surgeons believe it improves their performance, too. So the next time youre about to go under a general anesthetic, consider the fact that the guy with the scalpel might soon be timing his incisions to Whitesnake. #2. It Changes Your Drinking Habits Did you ever wake up in the back of a taxi after a long night of tossing down cognac and prune juice and wonder how your pants got replaced by a thick but clumsily applied coat of colorful body paint? Well, now theres something to blame it on besides your bad childhood: music. What they play in the bar doesnt just affect how much you drink, but what you drink. How the hell does music do that? Did you know you can make a person buy more expensive wine just by playing classical music? Experiments prove it. It makes people feel like theyre in a wine commercial or in a movie depicting refined, snooty rich people. OK, that one sort of makes sense we doubt anyone ever drank Wild Irish Rose while listening to Vivaldi. But in another blind study, different types of music playing in the background caused drinkers to change how theyd described the drinks they already had. Laid-back music led people to rate drinks as mellow, and upbeat music resulted in more people calling their drinks refreshing. Even stranger, in another study researchers placed German and French wines in supermarkets, with small flags next to each display so customers could tell which countries they came from. They then played some unobtrusive international music in the background. When German music was played, the percentage of German sales rose, and vice versa. This wasnt because customers thought to themselves, Ah! Germany! I will celebrate the Fatherland with some nice wine! Questionnaires showed that customers couldnt recall what type of music was playing and thought theyd chosen a particular wine simply because theyd felt like it. The people selling you the drinks know all of this stuff or at least, the successful ones do. Weve pointed out before that bars and nightclubs often play fast music to increase alcohol-based profit. But other establishments, particularly upscale restaurants, prefer slow, relaxing music, which,  believe it or not, can also make you drink more. The tempo of music is linked to your bodys arousal level, or the speed at which your nervous system operates. Fast music heightens arousal (heh), so patrons will do everything more quickly, including eating and drinking and leaving their infant by the salad bar. Which is good for a restaurant owner if hes just concerned with getting you out the door so he can serve more (and presumably better) people. On the other hand, slower music means that you eat at a more leisurely pace. Maybe youll even stay to chat with your companions after youre done with your meal. All this time passing means youre likely to buy more drinks every time the waiter comes around to ask, and at a restaurant thats charging $70 a bottle, that makes up for any lost table space. Some restaurants go as far as to purchase a personalized selection of songs specially designed by sound branding companies, which select songs based on whatever tempo or atmosphere the restaurant is aiming to achieve. #1. It Makes You a Better Communicator How does a narcissistic ass like John Mayer, who isnt even that attractive, still have hot women of all ages throwing themselves at him? Its the guitar, isnt it?Actually, a trained musician like Mayer would probably be able to talk a woman into his bed without ever even playing a note. It turns out that studying music gives you an advantage when it comes to perceiving the emotions of others, so all those years of being chained to a piano as a child are finally going to work in your favor. People who can play instruments at near-professional level can detect subtle emotional changes and intonations in the vocal tones of others. In other words, they know whether you are actually sad when you say youre fine, even when most non-musicians would have no idea. Not only that, but the fact that they studied music makes them better able to tune out background noise, so they are even better at paying attention to what you are saying in that crowded restaurant or bar. How the hell does music do that? Research shows that people who have studied music actually have brains wired differently than non-musicians. This rewiring makes them better able to express emotions they are feeling, but it also makes them more able to understand the emotions others express. Music is very emotional, and people  wired to understand those subtle emotional changes can also detect them in the vocal tones of someone talking. The emotion of the music translates to knowing when your boss is secretly mad or your mother is secretly disappointed. The sooner you start learning music, the more pronounced this re-wiring is. Scientists think that teaching children music might help kids with autism better understand vocal cues and encode speech. The fact that this brain re-wiring helps them tune out background noise could also help kids stay focused in noisy classrooms. It is also something that gets better the more you play, so sticking to your piano lessons now could lead to a powerful advantage in your future dating world. Read more: Music is one of many important parts of our lives because it can be an approach not only to reduce each of our mental tension but also to inspire our feelings in artistic sense. Then, there are only two subtopics to develop into two paragraphs in the body: 1) music is an approach to reduce peoples mental tension 2) music inspires peoples feelings in artistic sense