Thursday, February 28, 2019


DERIVATIVE CASES An Investment Linked to Commodity Futures prof Richard Spurgin FIN 5310 1 Group 1 Zhongyi Qian Hao Cheng Yue Zhao Liuyang Gao Motivation for issuing the warranter Prior to the Swedish exportation Credit Co. issued the certification, the arrangeance of the GSCI showed that this index was all the way sweet. First, the increasing-trend cumulative number diminishs were higher than the concedes on S&P viosterol and the Treasury bonds, and then it became much diversified with more proximos contracts introduced after 1980.Besides, opposite attractive feature of the GSCI was its ability to act as a hem in against inflation because it had a strong positive correlation with the two close widely used measures of inflation CPI and PPI. In addition, the investment on the GSCI had the potential to decrease the happen of a portfolio because its sires were negatively correlated with returns on stocks and bonds. We could examine the index performance more specifica lly. The perfect returns on the GSCI consisted of one-third components, the conduct from the collateral Treasury bill, the spot return and the cast off furnish from the futures.According to the total return of the GSCI prior to 1990, we could find that the contribution of the T-bill go bad was considerable and relatively stable while that of the spot return was small on average and extremely volatile and that of the roll yield was positive though somewhat volatile. The primary source of return changed based on variant period with different financial environment and weighting strategy. Spot return contributed a lot in the inflationary period while the roll yield contributed more in the isinflationary period. As for the returns after 1991, we consider it logical to assume that the GSCI would continue to generate hefty returns. Since the prices of crude oil futures include in the GSCI had been in backwardation 80% to 85%, GSCI generated high roll yield that significantly contr ibute to the total return during 1981-1990. Therefore, we can say that in 1991-1993, with substantial contribution of T-bill yield and relatively high roll yield, the total return of the GSCI would continue to be hefty in short term.As a consequence, the GSCI would get more attractive and hence popularizing securities exclusively tied to it such as dismantles issued by Swedish Export. In addition, it was true that GSCI was particularly attractive because it had negative correlation with the US stock market. From Exhibit 4, we can simply find returns of GSCI had negative correlation ( developedly -0. 32) with returns of S&P 500 and in the meanwhile, generated relatively higher returns than those of S&P prior to 1991. As faraway as we concerned, it make a lot of sense since its a fully collateralized portfolio of commodity futures.As we know, in theory, commodities futures perform well when financial assets perform worse , that is to say, GSCI has a negative correlation with stock markets. Structure of the security It is possible to bend the GSCI by making a portfolio, which contains the future contracts of the commodities that includes in the GSCI and the futures of each individual commodity can be weighed approximately the identical percentage as they are in the current GSCI. When the future reaches to its maturity, the future contract go away be rolled over into the next adjacent contract just like the way the GSCI was calculated.In this way we can double over the GSCI index and the return should be likewise approximately equal to it. As for the tradeoff between buying the structured note and the replicating portfolio, one should equation them in different aspects. Although the nominal return maybe theoretically the same, the actual return of the structured note should be higher than the replicating portfolio because the transaction tiptoes and charges will be charged in the progress of making and keeping the portfolio. To replicate the payoffs of the GSCI, the investor also needs to put a certain amount of coin as the frequent margin and/or collateral postings.Besides, if the investor wants to sell what he has for cash, then he will find the liquidity for the structured note is much higher than the replicating portfolio. However, the investors would exactly get paid 95. 57% of the addition rate of GSCI index from the structure note while they did not go for such limitation on the replicating portfolio. On this transaction, Goldman Sachs earned commission fee as 0. 35% of the total amount of the note, which was $350,000, but they got far more than this for creating the index. In addition to the notes described in this case, Goldman Sachs offered a number of other products related to the index.Each of these products would generate a huge amount of commission. For Swedish Export Corp. , they could finance with no fix interest paid and the possibility that the terms of financing was even cheaper than that of issuing compan y bond directly by all odds existed. Investors would like to have this structure note in portfolios not only because the advantages illustrated above, but also because it had a negative correlation with the stock market, so it could hedge the portfolio risk to some extent. How the deal performed over timeTo calculate the total return, we first need to calculate the cash flows (Table 1) by using the formula, hit*0. 9557 *GSCI End / GSCI Begin, and when at maturity the value investors could redeem is $78781. 54. Thus the total return of security is as below (78781. 54/hundred thousand)(1/3)-1=-7. 64% 39390. 77/50000)(1/3)-1=7. 64% Compared with other alternatives such as Managed Futures Funds, Swap Transaction and CRB Futures Index, it seemed that GSCI was a good investment since all these three alternatives had relatively lower return than GSCI and still in the decreasing trend.However, the total return of GSCI was declining from 1991 to 1994. Besides, the T- bill yield was higher than the GSCI return, which made this investment meaningless. Additionally, we calculated the yearly return of GSCI and downloaded the return of S&P and Treasury of these four years. Correlations between GSCI return and S&P and Treasury return is showed in Table 2. It was obviously that at that place were positive correlation between the GSCI return and S&P and also positive between GSCI and Treasury, which meant that this future contract could not decrease risk effectively.Therefore, in retrospect from 1991 to 1994, the GSCI futures contract decreased the overall return and at the same time failed to diversify the risk of the investment portfolio. It was not a good investment for investors. Table 1 Year Par=100000 Par=50000 11/1/91 95570. 00 47785. 00 11/30/94 78781. 54 39390. 77 Table 2 Year Return S&P Treasury 91 -5. 46% 30. 23% 5. 61% 92 -4. 09% 7. 49% 3. 41% 93 -8. 20% 9. 97% 2. 98% 94 -7. 64% 1. 33% 3. 99% S&P and return 0. 327556756 T and return 0. 302031481

Loose Control

Lily walked into the crowded caf and was greeted by the warm smell of freshly scorched bread. Mrs Austell always made the most delicious bread, not that she had eaten much of it lately. The mouthpiece watering smell of Mrs Austells home made loaf brought back bitter-sweet memories for Lily. Memories of when her breeding was happy. In control.Lily walked over to the cashier and began to place her order.Can I bring a bottle of mineral water and she stared longingly at the rank of chocolate bars on display. If she was really good for the quietus of the twenty-four hour period She shook the thought from her mind. Four hundred calories per bar, even if she was good for the rest of the day, it would still take ages to burn, yeah thats all thanks, she finally tell as she handed the cashier the m adepty and went over to sit at the circular wooden table by the window.She had just started reading her positron emission tomography book when someone sat down next to her.She looked up to call in a girl with greasy, peroxide blonde hair pulled back into a tight ponytail. Her ears glittering with fake gold hoops and playboy studs.Awright divest girl? she asked, tauntingly.Leave me alone Olivia, answered Lily quietly.She tried to concentrate on her book. It was one of her favourites, and although she knew it back-to-front, it was still completely engrossing. It had been a present from her aunt that Christmas when She tried to wee back her tears, but it was too late, a lump had formed in her throat. She didnt want to cry in front of Olivia, she was bad enough already. retributory as Lily began to feel the first mournful tears form, a component part called her above the chatter of the caf.Lily looked up to see Darcey striding through the cafe, her long pyrogenous hair swishing behind her making her look as if shed just stepped off the catwalk.Oh.My.Gosh said Darcey as she sat down.What? asked Lily cheerfully, feigning a smile.I got the nipHuh?Ive signed with a model agency, Models one to be exact squealed Darcey. poop

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Lyca Mobile

London, UK, eleventh June 2012 Lyca nomadic UK gets the larger piece of the international mobile calls pie. Lycamobile, the global attracter for baseborn cost international mobile calls, affirms its position as the most utilise MVNO in the UK leading the way in brand awareness and utilisation according to research. Sample research conducted by YouGov revealed Lycamobile as the number ace consumer brand for international mobile calls across the globe.In the research study conducted for Lycamobile it was realised that over 50% of respondents made international calls and in the category world(prenominal) calls with a separate mobile phone Lycamobile scored luxuriouslyest for awareness and role. The high level of awareness and usage which Lycamobile has achieved since project in 2008 is driven by its salutary brand, a compelling value proposition, high quality service and ample retail distribution. Subaskaran Allirajah, Lycamobile Chairman commented, This is great news for L ycamobile and our customers.Coupled with the recent conveyth figures in Spain where Lycamobile is the number one MVNO this continues to consolidate our position as the global leader in low cost international mobile calls. Over the bygone 5 years the Lycamobile team shit worked tremendously hard to launch into 14 countries and to be the dominant global MVNO player. We are extremely blissful with these findings and look forward to increasing our global footprint this year. Milind Kangle, chief executive officer of Lycamobile, added I am delighted with the initial results. The brand awareness and usage shows that every 4 seconds a new customer joins the Lycamobile family.This success we have had is down to the vision on our Chairman Subaskaran Allirajah and the hard work, commitment and try of our 4000 employees in the UK and across the world. Lycamobile will continue to invest in high quality of service and value proposition ensuring that customers can stay in touch with their f riends and family during these times of austerity. End About Lycamobile Lycamobile is a prepaid mobile SIM card provider that provides low-cost, high-quality international and national calls to over 8. million customers across 14 countries (UK, Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Italy, Spain, Australia, France, Germany, Poland and Ireland). Lycamobile is available through an extensive network of more than 500,000 retail outlets. The brand was initially introduced in 2006 and is already Europes largest pre-pay MVNO. Lycamobile continues to grow rapidly with further market launches planned throughout 2012. www. lycamobile. co. uk Notes to Editor 1. back tags Lycamobile free calls 2. Contact person emailprotected com

Directed Journaling Level 3

Guided Questions for Directed Journaling Level 3 (November 2012 Session) 1. To set up graduates that lead themselves in a maestro manner by acting ethically, selfassessing, spare-time activity codes of conduct and standards of practice with integrity. critique the responsibilities of the dental consonant hygienist for reporting abuse infra the Regulated Health Professions Act, as outlined in the CDHO Registrants handbook and Professional Issues II (DH 202). Read the articles Oral health professional springy Elder abuse preserve in the United States and Canada and Initiating discourse on recognizing and reporting child abuse. base on these articles, reflect on the followers Describe your province and obligation when you wary abuse in Ontario. abridgment the consequences you could face if you neglected your duty. Reflect your personal opinion about this business and possible consequence. Describe how you would handle a situation in the CADH clinic should you suspect abuse. Furnari, W. (2011). Oral health professional alert Elder abuse concern in the United States and Canada. Can J speck hygienics 45 (2) 98-102. DeMattei, R. R. , Sherry, J. S. 2011). Initiating discourse on recognizing and reporting child abuse. Can J fault hygiene 45 (4) 253-258. 2. To prepare graduates that effectively communicate and collaborate with clients, utility(a) decision makers, communities and other professionals. Read the article An Overview of health behavioural replace theories and models Interventions for the dental hygienist to improve client motivation and compliance. Reflect on your communication with clients and discuss client belief/value modification utilize approaches identified in the article.Further, explain how you fundament overcome the challenge. Collins,S. M. An Overview of health behavioural change theories and models Interventions for the dental hygienist to improve client motivation and compliance. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (2) 109-115. 3. To prepare graduates who demonstrate critical persuasion by determining credible education and integrating knowledge exploitation an evidence-based approach to deliver the dental hygiene process of divvy up. Read i of the articles listed below. pack one of these articles that pertain to a client you are shortly treating.Based on the data in the article Highlight the significant findings indoors this article Demonstrate how you have utilized the significant findings found in the chosen article inside the dental hygiene process of solicitude for your client DeAssis-Soares, M. R. F. (2011). Halitosis from tonsilloliths Literature review for spoken healthcare providers. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (4) 223-228. An, S. L. , Ranson, C. (2011). Obstructive sleep apnea for the dental hygienist Overview and parameters for interprofessional practice.Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (4) 238-252. 4. To prepare graduates that advocate for themselves, individuals, the community and the profession. Revie w A Guide toChoosing and Adapting Culturally and Linguistically Competent Health forward motion Materials at the undermentioned link http//www11. georgetown. edu/research/gucchd/nccc/documents/Materials_Guide. pdf How can you use this information to provide efforts of advocacy for the client to be able to meet the postulate of clients of diverse cultures? What case of advocacy can you engage in to help the client? . To prepare graduates who are competent coordinators who model the mission, vision and priorities of the scheme in the practice content by applying quality assurance standards and protocol to ensure a safe, productive and effective working environment and maintaining backup and records consistent with professional practice standards. Assume that you have been given the responsibility of reviewing and updating the policies and protocols related to safety in the CADH clinic.Review the articles outlined and answer the following Reflect on what this information mean s to the safety of clients, practitioners, and the public. Identify where CADHs policy are in compliance with the literature and where improvements are required. Leivers, M. , Kanji, N. N. , Hirji, S. K. , Hernandez, G. , Kaminska, B. D. , and do, H. L. T. (2012). provide contamination in the dental environment. Can J Dent Hygiene 46 (1) 50-56. 6. To prepare graduates who are competent clinical therapists who apply professional judgment consistent with standards of practice when safely delivering client specific dental hygiene process of are to individuals as independent practitioners or in partnership with other health care providers. Read one of the articles listed below. Select one of these articles that pertain to a client you are currently treating. Based on the information in the article Highlight the significant findings within this article Demonstrate how you have utilized the significant findings found in the chosen article within the dental hygiene process of care for your client Pence, S. D. , Chambers, D. A. , van Tets, I.G. , Wolf, r. C. , and Pfeiffer, D. C. (2011). Repetitive coronal polishing yields minimal ornament loss. J of Dent Hygiene 85 (4) 348-357. Imai, P. H. , Hatzimanolakis, P. C. (2011). Interdental brush in type I embrasures Examiner blinded randomized clinical trial of expel and plaque efficacy. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (1) 25-32. 7. To prepare graduates as an oral health educator who uses theoretical frameworks and educational principles to assess, plan, deliver, value and modify oral health behaviours. Read one of the articles listed below. Using the information from the article, reflect on how the information outlined in the article can impact your clinical practice as an oral health educator. Dempster, L. J. , Locker, D. , Winson, R. P. (2011). The dental fear and avoidance scale (DFAS) Validation and application. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (3) 158-164. Waldron, S. K. (2011). Auditory sensory impairments and the impact on oral h ealthcare A review of the literature. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (3) 180-184.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

How Electricity Is Produced

1.How is electricity matured? The most simple way of producing static ekectricity is by attrition or friction. When you rub two different kind of materials that are insulator, you drive out transfer electrons from one substance to another. Nowadays, to create electricity we use battery and generators. Voltage can be made by heart, light or mechanical pressure.2.Where and how is electricity used? electricity gives us ability to produce heat, which is essential in our life. Electricity makes heat and used in toasters, join irons and almost every machine. A very useful home of electricity is that it is a source of a magnetism. negatrons period of time through wires which is how telephones, loudspeakers could work. Without electricity, we allow be living in a place where there is no light at night. For a power source to work we want energy, just like the human body needs energy to serve well3.How was it discovered? Electricity was first discovered by a classical philosophere s. They discovered when amber was rubbed against the cloth, light weight objects stuck to it. Moreover, Benjamin Franklin flew his kite during a thunderstorm and when lightning flashed, the spark transferred from the key to his wrist. He could had easily been killed from electric shock. Without these people, the breakthrough of light bulb would have been impossible.4.What is electricity how does electricity emanate? Electricity is a flow of tiny particles called electrons which can travel through wires. Electron current the name of this flow. Just like water, which can only flow down a hill, an electric current can only flow if theres something pushing the electron.

14 Points Woodrow Wilson

President Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points On January 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson gave a plan to intercourse which outlined the post World War I pause treaty later negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference, and in the accord of Versailles. The fourteen points were intended to generate support for Wilsons vision of the postwar world, both home & also among allies in Europe. The president hoped that the covenant of a just peace would be embraced by the populations in antagonist nations and generates momentum for ending the war.When comparing Avalon have ( primary) & History World (secondary) documents for Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points, I found that the primary document is the actually proposal. at that place is nothing creative about it. It is just what Wilson stated. When exacting the primary I had no understanding of what was being presented to both houses of Congress. In Wilson perspective it was for the Congress, to dissertate the objects of the war and the possible basis of a general peace. As, I read the secondary source document, I fully understood the proposal.The writer generated this magnetic variation for the people. He shortened and paraphrased it but, I was able to understand the document. Indeed the Avalon Project (primary) version was more information then what was needed because he was presenting it to Congress so it had to be in a certain form & virtually important professionally presented. That document is more of the original. So it is supposed to be more into details. With the History World (secondary) version the information w

Monday, February 25, 2019

P1 describe the type of business, purpose and ownership of two contrasting businesses. Essay

P1 describe the pillow slip of pedigree, purpose and ownership of dickens contrasting businesses. For this assignment I am going to select two businesses, one which will be topical anaesthetic and not-for- usefulness organization and the second will be an international business and for profit. The two businesses I have chosen to use for this task are Asda Stores Ltd. and Welcare, Reigate. subject of BusinessAsda Stores Limited, commonly known as ASDA, is the second largest retail shop and a national world limited alliance. It is a juicy business and it is the subsidiary of American comp all Wal-Mart. It was founded in 1949. Furthermore as Asda is a profitable business it is also in the private sector. Welcare is a topical anesthetic charitable, non-profit organization.They earn no profit out of their work however do accept forms of donations and fundraisers. The charity was set up by a church service over 100 years ago. It was sooner founded in 1894. Furthermore as it a no nprofit business and is giving service it is in the public sector. Purpose of the businessA charity is a group of profitable people whose aim is to give a service and help those in need. Welcare charity provides operate which include social work and family support, support groups and action skill workshops and also a childrens health clinic. They work to restrict families together, and encourage parents to give their children a happier childhood.Asda is a retail supermarket and the purposed of Asda is to make profit and to supply goods to customers. It deal outs general merchandise such as food, drink, clothing and sundry(a) other items. It also has services such as insurance, financial services and a mobile telephone network. Business Ownership and level of indebtednessAsda was founded by Associated Dairies & Farm Stores Limited in 1949. This is situated in Leeds. The company has limited liability, therefore any debts within the company are compensable by shareholders investm ent and this instrument the owner wouldnt have to sell their assets and belonging to pay the debt. Being a shareholding company you can freely sell shares, this is an easy way to have money contributed to the company.Welcare was founded in 1894, and was originally called The Diocesan Association for the Care of FriendlessGirls. This company has limited liability, this means any debt is paid for and the owners do not have to sell any assets.

Colorism: Black People and African American Culture Essay

Colorism is a type of discrimination in which humans of the corresponding feed be treated or treat each former(a) differently because of the social connotations that rent been attached to shade of their skin. It exists in more or less every race, but it is intimately predominant in the African American culture within the borders of The United States. Colorism in the United States is rooted suffer to knuckle downry and ever since then it has corrupted the minds of the black community.Colorism between African Americans was no mistake it was done purposefully to divide the African slave population to make them easier to control. A man by the name of Willie kill gave a lecture in Virginia 1712 about how to control slaves. In this computer address he stated, I use fear, distrust, and envy for control purposes. These methods have worked on my modest plantation in the West Indies, and it will work end-to-end the South.Take this simple little test of differences and think about th em. On the top of my list is Age, but it is there because it only starts with an A the second is Color or shade there is intelligence, size, sex, size of plantations, office of owners, whether the slaves live in the v every last(predicate)ey, on a hill, East, West, North, South, have fine or coarse copper, or is tall or short.Now that you have a list of differences, I shall give you an outline of actionbut to begin with that, I shall assure you that distrust is stronger than trust, and envy is stronger than adulation, respect, or admiration. Willie Lynch was a smart man with a very insidious agenda that he flawlessly completed. He knew the power of distrust, he knew how to use it to his advantage, and he knew that all he had to do was plant the seed in to the minds of the slaves and it would grow and unfold all on its own and live for many years to come.From his speech stems the terms light skinned, dark skinned and good hair. African American culture even today, three hundred years after this speech was given, is still being led to believe that having lightness skin in some way makes you a better than soulfulness who has slightly darker skin. From the land that holds the famous motto All men are created equal oddly is the same place where people of the same race discriminate against their own people.In The Color Complex by Midge Wilson, she tackles the income tax return by tracking down the birthplace of colorism, To trace the origins of the color complex, we moldiness return to the year 1607 when three ships sailed in Chesapeake Bay, stopping at Jamestown, Virginia, to put up the first English colony in the New World. . . . What might have been unthinkable in Europe and Africa was an everyday occurrence in the wilderness. Miscegenation, or race mixing, became widespread as Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans mixed their seed and amount to produce a kaleidoscope of skin tones and features.But these primary race groupings differed acutely in their civil liberties and political freedoms. Subtle variations in appearance took on enormous consequences in meaning, especially among Negros, (Wilson, pg. 9). The black community has let this wall socket open the doors for so much ignorance for hundreds of years. The effects of this have seeped into some of the most important organizations that delineate the black community, such as the NAACP, Jack and Jill, and storied black Sororities and Fraternities.

Sunday, February 24, 2019


The reading that I distinguishable to summarize is cal direct The Emergence of the Star System in America by Richard Decorate. The topic Is very reusable because It emphasizes the Idea of the supporter system. The system Includes assorted kinds of Information that was created about actors.The velveteen of the system was influenced and developed through three transformations same(p) the address on acting, the picture personality and the star The reading is strong because the write takes the reader thought the Journey about what perception of accept actors used to be before 1907 and how the incept of performers kept evolving and changing till the family of 1914.The first transformation Is the discourse on acting. Decorate argues that before 1907, admit actors were not popular and all the Journalistic discourse of the time focussed primarily on the scientific aspects of the apparatus). It was assumed that engages were products that did not have any involvement of human labor until the rise of another discourse in 1907, the importance of the labor in film production.The discourse lead to a new noesis which created a struggle destined to resituated the come out of textual radioactivity for the spectator away from the work of the apparatus Itself other very Important aspect Is that at the time all those who appeared In films were called picture performers and their activities were described as posing because the activity of acting in film was known only in price of photography due(p) to struggle between a photographic and a theatrical liking of the body (Decorate, p 19). In 1908, a abundant decrease in exact of documentary films led to development of dramatic films.It led too huge popularity of people who appeared in films and who had a lend of the prolific, film and the real stories. The travel led to strengthening of the concept called the picture performer and acceptance of the position that the art of acidulous be translated to the screen ( Decorate, p 22). The acceptance allowed company to legitimate the concept of cinema and get new tastes of consumption similar a combination of good action and acting in lodge to appeal to large audiences. The second transformation is the picture personality.Actors presented themselves with fictional telephones and public personalities. Three kinds of knowledge appeared hill creating the personality. The first one Is the circulation of the name that emphasizes the difficulty of separating the circulation of the players names and the circulation of the films they were in (Decorate, p 25). Actors were identified in special films because of names. The second knowledge is intellectuality. It constituted the picture personality . The knowledge was created by both the cinema and press. Personalities of performers supposed to be Just like their characters had.The knowledge emphasized stage experiences of actors. The last ell known transformation Is the star. Stars have eer been chara cterized by a fairy through going articulation of the range of a function professional Life/private life. With the emergence of the star, the question of the players existence impertinent his/her work in films entered discourse Around 1914, there was already no restriction in terms of knowledge and textually of players in films. Personal lives of stars became a new kind of a popular knowledge. Professional and personal lives became self-controlled film characters.Eventually, the main difference between the picture personality and he star is that the later supports a family discourse The redundancy and closure of the two lives led to the emergence of the star concept with its system and power. The writing is very useful it terms of understanding how the concept of the star was created and why it evolved in real ways. It was also very helpful to understand the emergence in terms of the three key transformations likeliest discourse on acting, the picture personality and the star. Th e transformations allowed me to correspond about interconnected aspects and facts which led to the concept of the star system.

Philosophy and Empire in Ancient China

The late chow chow period of, alike known as the Age of a one hundred Schools of purview, was a turbulent era in Chinese story. Although these schools all contended against from each one other, they had the same basic goal. To unify China. The three most influential schools of feeling that existed were Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism. Although ultimately it was legalist principles and methods that ended the Period of the struggle soils, through the eyes of the Confucian thinkers, Qin Shihuandis legalist policies may feel been a harsh and overtly utilitarian counseling of unifying China.Confucianism is a school of thought that developed from one realitys indispensableness for a to a greater extent moral way of ruling. Kong Qiu, as he was named in the first place history posthumously named him Kong Fuzi which was later Latinized into Confucius, was born into an aristocratic but destitute family . His experience with rituals of his native state of Lu in Northwestern China, light-emitting diode him to embark upon a 14 year period of wandering with his students . Confucius traveled to various small motor inns attempted to convince their leaders to adopt his philosophies of animateness and govern organise forcet. He hoped his ideas would return China to a state of harmony and arbiter .Confucius later returned to his home and remained teaching, believing himself a failure, until his finish in 479. In actuality he was faraway from a failure. His ideas spread throughout the kingdom and vie a profound role in shaping Chinese civilization. We essential remember that the School of a Hundred thoughts took place during the Period of the Warring states. This was a cut officularly turbulent period of history where philosophers were trying to come up up with anything they could to bring peace and confident rule to China. Many thinkers, much(prenominal) as Confucius, looked to the past to provide examples of for improvement.The past, especially th e Zhou dynasty, was largely mythicized and seed to be a Golden age of harmony and prosperity . Confucius believed the Sage kings had it basically right. A ruler should be like a father realize to his great deal and lead by example, non by fear. Confucius also move upon other age-old Chinese virtues such as filial theology or xiao, a moral hu mankindity or ren, and ritual politeness or li. Confucian thought emphasizes the principle that humans be broadly speaking moral creatures and argon by fact, obliged to comport themselves humanely and with integrity. eyepatch Confucianism preached preached a doctrine of benevolent reform based on the virtues of the past, Legalism to the contrary emphasized a strict utilitarian regime. Leaders in legalist thought, complete that with the extreme disorder of their present day, new and drastic measures were necessary. For a governing body body to succeed, it would depend on a effective system of rewards and punishments. To condition hi s power, the ruler had to keep his officials in line with strict rules and regulations and his population teachable with predictably en squeeze laws.Shang Yang, Han Feizi gathered that the base of a states strength was its fortify forces and its agriculture. They then tried to dissuade people from being merchants, scholars, philosophers, or artists because these c beers did not advance the interests of the state . Legalists imposed a strict regime with intelligibly and strictly defined laws and expectations. Failure to comply even to the most miserable of laws resulted in severe punishment. Legalist thought was that this fear of their leaders would inspire contour with the laws that govern the state as a whole.Although the harsh ideals of the legalist school of thought may sport later been smoothed out by adopting sure Confucian ideas, they originated as vastly different systems. We can see the legalist polices that Sima Quian record in his expansive history of China as they were enforced by Qin Shihuandi. Confucians such as Mencius would have likely dis defyd with this style of rule. There are many discrepancies we can see when comparing Sima Quians writings and the Analects enter by students of Confucius. Qin Shihuangdi had a tower built on Mount Langya with iron out inscriptions for his people to live by.One inscription reads Great are the Emperors achievements, men attend diligently to basic tasks, farming is encouraged, secondary pursuits discouraged. It is made terminate that the great emperor indirect requests to suppress his peoples desires to pursue anything but basic tasks that officiate the greater good. This would sound preposterous for a Confucian thinker. How can the people build a bust society if they are dissuaded from education? They may be forced to build walls or fight wars for the Emperor. Confucians did not believe in governing with decrees and regulating with punishments .They believed that the people will evade their fo rced reach and will have no sense of shame . They believed the better way to govern would be to lead by virtue and example. Whereas Qin Shihuangdi may promote a crooked aristocrat to oversee the building of walls, a Confucian would promote an upright citizen who was knowledgeable and educated. While the crooked man may punish insubordination with violence to scare others into working, the straight man would preside over them with dignity, and his people will be reverent if he is filial and loving.His subordinates would want to work for a man who believes in them and they would encourage each to work harder through their respect for one another. As for sageness and humanity, how withstand i asseverate them? But to learn it insatiably and instruct others indefatigably-that much may be said of me, that is all, meekly stated master Confucius. Humility also must have had a different meaning for Qin Shihuangdi as he was quoted in his sagacity, benevolence and justice to have said I hu mbly propose that all records but those of Qin be burned.If anyone who is not a court scholar dares to keep the ancient songs, historical records or writings or writings of the hundred schools, these should be confiscated and burned Those who in conversation dare to quote the old songs and records, should be publicly executed, those who use old precedents to fight back the new order should have their families wiped out. This is a stark contrast to the Confucian beliefs that were composed of many older ideals. Confucians studied ancient texts such as the Book of Documents, and the Book of Songs. The ideals they upheld emphasized the importance of education which came in part from these ancient texts.How was a man to educate himself and raise his family out of scantiness without an education. As Confucius says If he learns, he will not be drab , or ignorant of the rituals that make a virtuousin shi. In a legalist China, where no evil or impropriety is allowed and where kinsman care for each other , people who were often held to the principle of collective responsibility. All family members were expected to observe others closely, predict any illegal activity and deal it. Even if it was against their own family or community members.If there were such people who knew of such cases but failed to report them, they should be punished in the same way. This also is a far cry from the benevolent practice of xiao. In fact, it is fundamentally opposite of the spiffing teachings of Confucius. Whereas legalist theory believes that children who rebel against their wrongdoing parents will grow to be substantial citizens, Master You states that those who are not apt to defy their superiors, but are apt to stir up a rebellion just now do not exist. Although this is only a theory, I would say that it should hold more water than Qin Shihuangdis.If the state practices filial piety and brotherly obedience being the grow of humanity and the government conducts itself with a virtue likened to the North Star one could shot that it would be a fairly pleasant society to live in. withal inscribed upon Qin Shihuangdis stele was the phrase, The super C people know peace and have laid aside weapons and armor kinsmen care for each other, there are no robbers and thieves men delight in his rule. A Confucian skill believe this to be quite an exaggeration for to them there were no common people. Only people who should be treated how you yourself would like to be treated.In a society of people who are more encouraged to work on their own knowledge, and attainment of skilled judgement there would be less(prenominal) of a need for strict rules and guidelines as the people should conduct themselves gibe to the virtues and morals they have attained through education. The utilitarian procedures of legalism were largely trustworthy for the general lack of education among the common people of China. As a opinionated Confucian scholar under the reign of Qin Shih uangdi, I would be one of the people getting together to slander the laws and practices set in place by my legalist ruler.While might be able to agree that a legalist doctrine was responsible for building a unified state with a large-scale political organization that established a customs duty of centralized imperial rule, i could speculate that China may have been a very different place had more Confucian value been implemented. As evidenced by the rule of Shang Yang, legalist politics were successful simply through the fear they instilled in the common people. While road work and agriculture was flourishing throughout the dynasty, so was unrest.Shang Yang was quickly executed upon the death of his patron, his body mutilated and his family annihilated. In the case of Qin Shihaungdi, there were many who welcomed the stableness his reign brought, yet still many outspoken scholars, philosophers and others who criticized his regime. As the first Emperor didnt want his people to be c onfused with the old teachings of scholars, he demanded that the books be burned and had hundreds of scholars executed. We may never know what China would be like had more of the Confucian teachings survived but i believe that their history might be a little bit less bloody.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Mcdonalds Anaylesing According to Porter’s Five Market Forces

McDonaldss Introduction McDonalds is the runway commercialize leader in quick do eating places. McDonalds is operating(a) in the UK since 1974, and now it has 1,200 restaurants comprehensive in the UK, including 700 drive-thru divulgelets. Around 60% of these restaurants atomic number 18 running by franchises. Restaurants be determined where they argon approximately convenient to its customers including on the exalted street, drive-thrus and a range of sites at shopping centres, airports and leisure parks. McDonalds UK employ e rattlingplace 75,000 staff, the majority them paid hourly or work damp- period.They serve much than two million customers each twenty-four hour period. The UK Comp some(prenominal) owned subsidiary of the McDonalds corporation, with 3 coke restaurants manhoodwide. Based on independent research CRF instate, McDonalds has been certified as superstar of the Britains Top Employer 2010. The research provides that they offer you excellent running (a) condition. McDonalds has a perfect vision and working accordingly. On 14 October, McDonalds UK held its 2009 Annual General Meeting, where the Executive Team presented the strategy for the yr ahead to department heads, franchisees and suppliers.Many of you entrust have already comprehend the highlights of this event from your franchisees, operations hierarchy or at your regional exhibiti sensationr meetings. I thought it would be suspensorful to tot upmarise these highlights in nonp beil place and recap on what the drivers of success bequeath be, for our task and brand, in 2010. I hope you find it easy and useful read and that you comp mavinnt it with your management teams. jibe to him they atomic number 18 in the final stages of complete an undischarged year for McDonalds in 2009.Their operations improvements merc cave inise broadcast and excogitation enablers argon delivering degrade sales, changing perceptions and meeting the increasing learns of customers. If he could sum up how he feels most their air in one word, it would be confidence-in their brand, in their momentum, in our quite a little and in our future. And their Business Managers have never been better placed to take advantage of what their investor has in their restaurants. So what be their plans for 2009? They are before long operating in an frugal downturn-a time when raft stick much discerning, non less.Their customers look more than bursting chargefully at measure and gauge and are less bequeathing to overpay. This is when they freighter at their best, offering a great prise, feel service in a simple and engaging way. To support this, we bequeath pass over to focus on QAC, invest in re-imaging our restaurants, in developing leadership market campaigns, in fodder innovation and in cr eating opportunities for our people. They have proven themselves to be one of the best businesses on the high street. scarcely they are to a fault operating in a time of uncertainty, so they take up to act nimbly if they are to continue to touch home our advantage.I am expression for you and your teams to address 2009 with the flexibility, enthusiasm and resolve that has transformed their performance over the live terzetto years. McDonalds Strategy for 2010 Lauran Cody (Vice president for BS&I) The McDonalds sleep with has got even better, through and through improved restaurants operations, a great marketing plan and strong diet stories, focus Plan Enablers and proceed investment in our people The discern messages for 2010 were communicated under three main strategies- Upgrading the Employee, Brand transparentness and Local relevance, Customer Experience.The economic s economic crisisdown has seen a flight to encourage across the UK, explained Chief Financial military officer Brian Mullens, and although general retail stones throw has gone down, the number of people going to McDonalds has gone up. This is because the whole McDona lds experience has got even better, through improved restaurants operations, a great marketing plan, strong fare stories, new premium viands, focused plan enablers and continued investment in their people. Lauren Cody, Vice President for Business strategy and insights, tell in that location is a silver lining of opportunity for them to gain market share during economic uncertainty.Customers want the same experience for less, so if they are refrain on their feet, offer great value and play to their strengths and their value heritage-without comparing their brand-they can emerge from the downturn stronger than ever before. Nevertheless, they are currently experiencing high embody inflation too, so there is a come along exact to protect their margins without devaluing their brands. This leave come upon by __Driving more customers into restaurants through Plan Enable exchangeable extended __Capitalising on brand rightfulness by continue to tell our story to customers _a mar keting calendar focused on providing simple, easy enjoyment __menu pricing __reducing energy usage and cost through smarter use of engineering science. Objectives of McDonalds Upgrading the Employee Experience How an organisation treats its staff can make a real difference to the business, the brand and its people. In 2009 they substantial new and exciting people initiatives to help attract great musical note people to deliver for their customer, which contributes to changing perceptions and drives sales. They and their teams have played a key part in this success.Chief People Officer David Fairhurst explained how 2010 is about holding up the momentum they have any worked so hard to achieve and continuing to surprise and impress their critics by building on our theme as a progressive employer. Their biggest people strategy for 2010 is the city and guilds sanction McDonalds Appr seduceship programme. It will complicate learning Maths and English online, completing the crew d evelopment programme and demonstrating key skills in the work place, much(prenominal) as numeracy and confabulation.By the end of their training, an apprentice will achieve a qualification equivalent to five GCSEs grade A* to C. Elsewhere, their new nationwide work experience programme will help restaurants deliver high quality placements, while minimising disruption to day- to-day operations. At the same time, McDonalds will enter a Local Employment Partnership with jobcentre plus, which matches long enclosure jobseekers to a vacancy in one of our restaurants. They will as well as be training a new McDonalds retail degree for business managers in conjunction with Manchester Metropolitan University.Furthermore, the shift into Service programme will provide a new restaurants-based workshop that will set out to create service improvements through the actions of shift managers. Upgrading the Customer Experience They are breaking sales and guest count records, explained Chief Opera tions Officer Richard Forte, but CSO results tell them that while their customers satisfaction is improving, a third of visits are still not satisfactory. They need to impress their record number of customers with outstanding QSC, so they will repay them with loyalty and extend their visits. Supported by ROIP and NABIT, the Plan Enablers have been a major uncovering for us In reviewing the top 50 sales performing restaurants during 2008, one in three can attribute over 50% of their development to one or more of the Plan Enablers. In the year head, they will draw on these and their operations heritage to deliver operations morality to every customer, on every shift, on every day. Three enables in particular will help them achieve this __Re-imaging by the end of 2008 we will have re-imaged 300 restaurants over a two-year period.Research under taken in areas where a large number of restaurants have been re-imaged shows customers are feeling more valued and have more affection for and trust in the brand. To supply on this, re-imaging will continue during 2010 and by 2011 they will have re-imaged the sinless estate. __Extended Hours in 2009 they doubled the sales generated through extended hours compared to2007, and rudeed their restaurants to three million more customers. Whats particular pleasing is that our viewpoint results show their crew find extended hours fits into their life genius too. _Drive-thru they have enabled their operations to capture on average an extra 11,200 cars per drive-thru so far this year. But while over in all in all drive-thru CSO has fallen 1% and total experience propagation have fallen by 10 seconds, friendliness, accuracy and communication hit have weakened. They need to step up their performance and refocus efforts near the basics of people, product and equipment. Next year, they are developing higher capacitance distinguishing systems to continue ontogenesis, such as customer order displays.It is about offering modern , flexible, and effortless order-and-pay options that will help make the customers experience more convenient and enjoyable. Brand Transparency and Local Relevance Their marketing proposition for 2009 is simple, easy enjoyment-giving their customers affordable treats in an socialise and convenient way. With tough economic time ahead, offering good value for money to customers is crucial, so delivering a great value will also be a key of theme. In response to customer feedback, the surpass saver Menu will be renamed the saver Menu in January, so as not to suggest a specific worth. humiliated Tasters will be launched too, offering new flavours in a small size as a tempting snack or robust treat. They tend to substantiate bored of their promotions quicker than their customers, argued marketing director Alistair Macrow, so returning to calendar will be coffee mugs in January and, in the spring, monopoly which will guarantee a winner in every restaurant. qualification our restaur ants kid loved, mum approved will be a fundamental part of strategy, revealed senior Vice President for marketing Jill McDonald.To achieve this, they will review and re-energise birthday parties, continue to develop Happy Meal energizing kits, keep using licensed characters to promote fruit bags, carrot sticks, milk, urine and orange juice and carry on their successful Did You Know? universeise for children. ACHIVING INFLUENCE 2009 saw McDonalds receive more positive press insurance coverage than ever before, with food sourcing, A-level equivalent qualification, new uniforms, football and re-imaging all helping to change customers perception of the brand.Nick Hindle, Vice President for communication said in 2010 they will campaign to drive sales and become even more influential. They will focus on leading the eating out market and campaigning on food, crusading in communities to connect with families and late adults and investing in the skills of franchisees in their work as Brand Ambassador. THEY allow BUILD ON OUR SUCCESS BY __generating coverage on the economic science of eating out, retail coverage of the key trends, health coverage virtually foods nutritional content and social affairs coverage on how families are changing their eating out habits. _launching a subject field on eating out, something the media, politicians and stakeholders can turn to for an understanding of the sector, its size, its dunkrsity, the choice and trends. __building on their footfall in the community programme by providing coaching places to the change young people __piloting a litter programme in Birmingham and Manchester that should help us win the litter battle, without putting any extra personal line of credit on restaurant operations. PESTLE Analysis POLITICAL The operations of McDonalds are affected by the government policies on the regulations of fast food operation. soon government are controlling the marketing of fast food restaurants because of health f ear such as cardiovascular and cholesterol issue and obesity among the young and children in the country. Governments also control the license granted for open the fast food restaurant and other business regulation need to follow such as for a franchise business. Good alliance with government in giving mutual benefits such as role and evaluate is a must for the company to succeed in any foreign market.McDonalds should also protect its workers by ensuring all the hiring, compensation, training or repatriation is according to Malaysian labour law as stipulated. ECONOMICS As a business entity, McDonalds need to face a lot of economic variables outside its company or its macro environment. Dealing with international sourcing for its framework McDonalds should be aware on the globose supply and currencies exchange. Remember, McDonalds import most of its raw material such as beef and potatoes imputable to local market cannot supply in abundant to meet the demand of its product. a ll upside of currencies e modifiedly dollar will be conflicting its cost of acquire. works on the local country, McDonalds must face government regulations on tax of profit where it gains from the operation and other tax such as sport and restaurant service tax. Each country may have incompatible exfoliation or types of tax available and McDonalds should follow the regulation if it wants to continue the operation. As a franchise, McDonalds should also pay certain percentage of the tax income to the parent company in United States.The economic condition and growth of the country also is an important indicator to the demand of products that McDonalds offered. As the food priced slightly above normal foods, not many people will have the income range to consume the products. Moreover if the economy is bad and income percapita is affected, the demand of McDonalds product will certainly going down. On the other hand the good economy also means disposable income is more and people ca n spend more on more expensive food at fast food restaurant. SOCIAL / CULTURALThe changing lifestyles of Malaysia due to development of Malaysian economy should be also taking into consideration. epoch more people are able financially to eat at more expensive outlet such as fast food restaurant, they have higher expectation. They want to have quality in run and more conveniences that can differentiate one restaurant from another. junior urban consumers want technology in their life and facilities such as credit card payment, wireless internet, cozy and relaxing ambient place, and other attraction for their hangout and eating. All these needs should also be taken into consideration.There is not much difference between ethnical and the purchase of products in a single country but for different countries cultural sensitivity should be upheld. For example in India people (Hindu) do not take beef, Muslim countries do not take pork, German same(p) beers, Finnish like fish type of foo d menu, Chinese like to associate food with something good (for example prosperity), Asian like rice and Americans eat in big-sized menu. So far McDonalds has shown good efforts in kettle of fish of its menu to suit local taste but it should constantly travel along and learn about local culture to better understand and endeavor the best product for them.TECHNOLOGY For a fast food restaurant, technology does not give a very high impact on the company and it is not a significant macro environment variables. still McDonalds should be looking to competitors innovation and improve itself in term of compound technology in managing its operation. For example in inventory system, supply range management system to manage its supply, easy payment and ordering systems for its customers and wireless internet technology. Implementation of technology can make the management more telling and cost saving in the long term.This will also make customer happy if cost savings results in price red uction or promotional campaign discount which will benefits them from time to time. LEGAL As a certified fast food operator, there are many regulations and procedures that McDonalds should follow. For example is the Halal certification that becomes a concern to Muslim consumers. McDonalds should protect its integrity and consumer confidence by ensuring all materials and ferment are as claimed or must followed.Other legal emergency that the business owner should follow as stipulated in laws are such as operating hours, business registration, tax prerequisite, labor and employment laws and quality & environment certification (such as ISO) in which the outlet has been certified. The legal requirement is important because the offenders will be fined or have their business prohibit from operating which can be disastrous. ENVIRONMENT As one of world largest consumer of beef, potatoes and chicken, McDonalds always had been critics for world environmentalist. This is because high onsump tion of beef causing the green firm effect by methane gasses coming from the cows ranch. Large scale plantation has effect the environment and lost of green forest fountain for plantation activities. Vegetarian environmentalist criticizes the fast-food giant for cruelty to animals and slaughtering. In Japan, once McDonalds want to introduce whale burger causing uproar because whales are endangered species. onward using paper packaging, once McDonalds also had been criticized for being insensitive to taint because using polystyrene based packaging for its foods.Imagine millions of people purchase from fast food operator and how is the impact to world environment by throwing absent those hard to recycle packaging. Our world is getting concern on environment issue and business operating here should not just kick for profit, but careful usage of world resources for sustainable development and care for environment safety and health for our future generation. Critics and concern fro m all public or activist should be review and support if necessary to condition we play our social responsibility better. SWOT Analysis StrengthsMcDonalds business is running since 1955 and 20 of the top 50 corporate staff employees had started as a restaurant level employee time of the beginning. In addition, 67,000 McDonalds restaurants managers and assistant mangers were promoted from restaurant staff. There was a one popular magazine in 2005 listed McDonalds as the Best place to work for minorities. In order to new strategy of McDonalds, it spending more than $1 billion each year in training its staff, and every year more than 250,000 employees completing their step from McDonalds training facilities named Hamburger University.The business is ranked number one in Fortune Magazines 2008 list of most admired food service companies. One of the worlds most recognizable logos (the Golden Arches) and spokes character (Ronald McDonald the clown). According to the Packard Childrens Hospitals Center for Healthy Weight children age 3 to 5 were given food in the McDonalds packaging and because given the same food without the packaging, and they preferred the food in the McDonalds packaging every single time. McDonalds is a community oriented, socially responsible company.They run Ronald McDonald House facilities, which provide elbow room and board, food and sibling support at a cost of whole $10 a day for families with children needing extensive hospital care. Ronald McDonald Houses are located in more than 259 local communities worldwide, and Ronald McDonald Care Mobile programs offers cost effective medical, dental and education services to children. They also sponsor Olympic athletes. They are a global company operating more than 23,500 restaurants in 109 countries. By being spread out in different regions, this gives them the ability to hold economic fluctuations which are localized by country.They can also put to work effectively in an economic downtur n due to the social need to seek out comfort foods. They successfully and easily adapt their global restaurants to appeal to the cultural differences. For example, they serve lamb burgers in India and in the meat East, they provide separate entrances for families and single women. Approximately 85% of McDonalds restaurant businesses world-wide are owned and operated by franchisees. All franchisees are independent, full-time operators and McDonalds was named Entrepreneurs number-one franchise in 1997.They have global locations in all major airports, and cities, along the highways, tourist locations, theme parks and inside Wal-Mart. They have an efficient, assembly line style of food preparation. In addition they have a systemization and duplication of all their food prep processes in every restaurant. McDonalds uses only 100% processed USDA inspected beef, no fillers or additives. Additionally the produce is farm fresh. McDonalds serves 100% farm raised chicken no fillers or addit ives and only grade-A eggs. McDonalds foods are purchased from only certified and inspected suppliers.McDonalds works closely with ranchers, growers and suppliers to ensure food quality and freshness. McDonalds only serves name brand processed items such as Dannon Yogurt, kraft Cheese, Nestle Chocolate, Dasani Water, Newmans Own Salad Dressings, Heinz Ketchup, Minute Maid Juice. McDonalds takes food safety very seriously. More than 2000 inspections checks are performed at every stage of the food process. McDonalds are required to run through 72 safety protocols every day to ensure the food is maintained in a clean grime free environment. McDonalds was the graduation exercise restaurant of its type to provide consumers with nutrition information. maintenance information is printed on all packaging and more recently added to the McDonalds network site. McDonalds offers salads, fruit, roasted chicken, bottled water and other low fat and calorie sure alternatives. WEAKNESSES Their test marketing for pizza failed to yield a substantial product. expiration them much less able to compete with fast food pizza chains. High employee turnover in their restaurants leads to more money being exhausted on training. They have yet to capitalize on the trend towards natural foods. McDonalds have problems with fluctuations in operating and net meshing which ultimately impact investor relations.Operating profit was $3,984 million (2005) $4,433 million (2006) and $3,879 million (2007). Net profits were $2,602 million (2005), $3,544 million (2006) and $2,395 million (2007). Opportunities In todays health conscious societies the insane asylum of a healthy hamburger is a great opportunity. They would be the first QSR (Quick Service Restaurant) to have FDA approval on marketing a low fat low calorie hamburger with low calorie jazz group alternatives. Currently McDonalds and its competition health choice items do not include hamburgers.They have industrial, Formica restaurant settings they could provide more upscale restaurant settings, like the one they have in New York City on Broadway, to appeal to a more upscale target market. Provide nonobligatory allergen free food items, such as gluten free and peanut free. In 2008 the business directed efforts at the breakfast, chicken, beverage and convenience categories. For example, hot medical specialist coffees not only secure sales, but also mean that restaurants get increasing numbers of customer visits. In 2009 McDonalds saw the full benefits of a venture into beverages.Threats They are a benchmark for creating cradle to grave marketing. They entice children as young as one year old into their restaurants with special meals, toys, playgrounds and popular movie character tie-ins. Children grow up eating and enjoying McDonalds and then continue into adulthood. They have been criticized by many parent advocate groups for their marketing practices towards children which are seen as marginally ethical. They have been sued multiple times for having cytomegalic food, allegedly with addictive additives, contributing to the obesity epidemic in America.In 2004, Michael Spulock filmed the documentary Super Size Me, where he went on an all McDonalds diet for 30 days and wound up getting cirrhosis of the liver. This documentary was a direct attack on the QSR industry as a whole and blamed them for Americas obesity epidemic. Due in part to the documentary, McDonalds no longer pushes the super size option at the dive thru window. Any contamination of the food supply, especially e-coli. Major competitors, like Burger King, Starbucks, greaser Bell, Wendys, KFC and any mid-range sit-down restaurants. Dr. Jill Novak, University of Phoenix, Texas A University.

Explorers, Or Boys Messing About? Essay

In this word the source, Steven Morris is actually critical of the venturers behaviour. How does he addle his aspects clear?In the oblige published by the Guardian and written by Steven Morris, we constitute an immediate critical vibe towards the explorers and the situation they were in. Morris has rather sarcastically verbalise about the events in a clever way, in which he manages to specify the explorers subtly without being too blunt.We see in just the prime(prenominal) paragraph the two explorers ar seen as childish in the writers choice of view, by using the watchword farce. The procedure of this word creates the idea of ridiculous and so foolishly amusing behaviour, which seems uncaring in an article based on something rather serious. This has given us an automatic feel that Steven wants to portray them as immature and a joke. end-to-end the article there are many other times the men are shown as juvenile by the writer. By choosing to rehearse the ingeminate f rom oneness of the explorers wives saying they were just boys messing about with a helicopter, they are once over once more shown as callow. As sound as it referring to fully grown men as boys, messing around with a thing as serious as a helicopter in extreme conditions, it in addition makes Morris look as though there are many people on his side. The fact that he has a cooperate opinion that what they did was stupid makes himself look far more reli able.Steven Morris also expresses his negative opinion of the explorers through the engaging way of irony and sarcasm. He uses phrases much(prenominal) as their trusty helicopter, putting invert commas around the word trusty himself. This makes the reader think that their helicopter was in fact the very opposite. Furthermore, he highlights their ironic failure in the fact that in one of their failed expeditions they wanted to demonstrate how good the relations between the east and westmost had become. He puts this in to show a no nher mission they had failed to complete when they were not allowed to cross the Russian borders. He too used a pun, by calling Mr Smith Q, a character from James Bond. This once again gives the idea that they were silly explorers living a fantasy world, like children feign to be characters, in a humorous way again.In addition, Steven has also very cleverly used the use of experts in order to make his opinion clear and article more reliable. A successful explorer quote is included saying that surviving the accident was nothing wretched of a miracle. This shows just how drastic the situation was, from a reliable source. That avouchment in itself works well to juxtapose his opinion that even though the situation was so serious he was still amused and able to make the jokes. Further on in the article he uses a helicopter experts quote saying, I wouldnt use a helicopter like that. This highlights their stupidity in his opinion, once again backed up by someone who knows exactly what t heyre talk of the town about.The last two paragraphs of the article are extremely important in him devising his opinion clear as well as making people want to agree with him. By including what was said by The Ministry of Defence, the taxpayer would fault up the bill, the reader is automatically involved in the article on a personal level. By using this in the article he is getting everyday people to be on his side, and nerve-wracking to make them see that they too are facing consequences from boys messing about.This supports his opinion well in making it look as though he cares for the everyday people(taxpayers) and they are part of the reason he is against what the explorers did. The closing fourth dimension saying theyll probably have their bottoms kicked and be sent home the bulky way, is a good way to close his article, leaving it in the readers mind that these people were immature, shown by the fact that they have been implied to have a childish punishment, once again to show how the writer is highlighting them in an immature and foolish way, as it becomes evident he thinks that they are.

Friday, February 22, 2019

Failure to maintain the rule of law Essay

The goerning body activitys repeat misfortunes to bring levels of knock hatful-dragout crime under control contributed to an environment which byword people resort to madness without fear of pay back or happy prosecution. In failing to main(prenominal)tain the rule of im fragmentiseiality the articulate had condition numerous poor communities to violent behaviour. The chastisement to protect communities from criminal elements and to take back those elements had allowed criminals to take full advantage of chaos and disorder to rob, rape, and loot during the violent uprisings.Incompetence in the ministry of safety and security, falling standards in the siemens African Police Service, cast downion up to the highest levels of the police, and affirmative action had scoured the subject matter of the police to provide a safe and secure environment in in the south Africa. This was moreover exacerbated by the poor per remainsance of the prosecution sober in securing co nvictions for offenders and the mischance of the department of correctional services to rehabilitate offenders. south-central Africa was faced with an motionive break downwardly of the organs responsible for maintaining law and order.Warnings to this effect from a variety of sources had been over self-aggrandizingly ignored or treated with impudence and contempt from the office of the minister of safety and security downwards. That not a single minister or deputy minister responsible for law and order, justice, or prisons was dismissed over close on ten years of Thabo Mbekis presidency suggests that the regimen was either unable to identify the jeopardys pre directed by lawlessness or had resigned itself to the consequences.Regardless of which of the two options is correct the failure of the body politic to maintain law and order is the first direct modify agentive use of goods and services to the fierceness.2.) Border controlThe collapse of proper border control mechan isms sawing machine literally millions of people gaining entry to southeast Africa under-the-counterly. The responsibility for this law enforcement failure rests jointly with the army, police and the brass activity who saw fit to hand m all border dut ies to the police when it should affirm been overt that the police were unable to traction the responsibility. The cloture of the commandos is instructive in this regard as it suggests a disposal more interested in ideology than in pragmatism. During a troops unit point when South Africa experienced some of the highest levels of violent crime in the realness the state saw fit to close down one of the cardinal organs responsible for rural policing.Poor form _or_ system of government decisions and simple incompetence in border policing therefore contributed presently to the presence of a large illegal population in South Africa. Without adequate legal rest in the community these people became easy or soft targets for clique fury. The polices own heavy reach r upkeeps on illegal immigrants hike created the impression that they were fair game in South Africa.The insurance response to the cross border influx revolved chiefly approximately a programme of arrests and deportations often without regard to the human dears and due performance issues that should come applied. This constitution continued long after it was appargonnt that it was having no effect on the number of illegal immigrants in South Africa. over over again no senior governmental official with responsibility for this detailed champaign of policing was dismissed for underperformance despite the obvious threat to national security.3.) rottennessCorruption in the state sector became endemic under Thabo Mbeki and very teentsy was done to curb it. The examples of Travelgate, Armsgate, and Oilgate served to create the impression that the South African state was corrupt up to the highest levels of government. Such corruption i n roll filtered down into the various government departments at local, provincial, and national level. In the home affairs, accessible welfare, and law enforcement areas literally tens of thousands of officials were implicated in corrupt dealings.Anger by South Africans at immigrants with illegal documents getting accessto services is therefore understandable and was brought about in large part by the failure of the police and the department of home affairs to crack down on fraudulent documents.Evidence of widespread corruption was uncovered by a host of agencies and the media. The government, however, failed to act with due diligence and most corrupt officials got outdoor(a) with a slap on the wrist. Even where the law overlyk its course as in the consequence of Tony Yengeni the ANC saw fit to carry him into prison alike a conquering hero.Confidence in the state was substantially eroded by corruption constitution failures and poor judgment on the part of government. Conseque ntly it is not move that communities saw the need to take their irritability onto the streets. Widespread corruption under minelaying the role of the state is therefore a further direct contributing factor to the violence.4.) EmploymentWith close on 40% of South Africans failing to secure a proper job it is not surprising that scores of youths were able to conduct days and nights of violent campaigns in light settlements virtually Johannesburg. Unemployment was therefore a direct contributing display case to the violence.Among young dull South Africans the unemployment rate extends to over 50% in some areas. Overall provided 50% of African households get their main source of income from employment. Social welfare which straight off reaches 25% of South Africans was neer going to be sufficient to meet communities packations of a break away life.Warnings as to the risks of sustained levels of high unemployment were largely ignored by government. Labour legislation, dispirit edly inappropriate for a largely unskilled workforce, has contributed to keep many in the main scandalous South Africans out of jobs. Immigrants were able to secure employment as these apprehend policies did not apply to them and were in many cases able to bring up a living free from government grantsor regulation. insurance responses such(prenominal) as the Expanded Public Works Programme were a case of too little toolate to prevent the turbulence that has gripped parts of Johannesburg for the away seven days.The government showed limited urgency in dealing with an unemployment crisis that mandatory dramatic changes in form _or_ system of government to address. A host of talk shops, forums, and strategies were substituted for factual furtherance. It is a valid question how the government could ignore such an obvious political risk factor for so long without an adequate policy response. Partly the answer may lie in the ANC misjudging its electoral uphold for satisfaction wi th its policies.5.) EducationThis has been governments biggest failure and carries much of the shoot for the high unemployment levels. It is arguable whether current state information is in its congeries any better than that under apartheid. Only 1% of dusky matriculants achieve a good HG maths pass. The output of the school learning system was therefore far from adequate to free households from state dependency or to acquire the skills necessary to find employment in a heavily regulated labour market.The education system is a good example where policy failures in one area compounded those in another. In this case poor education compounded the inappropriate labour market policy which in turn compounded the unemployment problem.Many warnings to government in this regard have been dismissed as alarmist and sensationalist. That combined with critical policy misjudgments such as the adoption of cases based education and the closure of teacher training colleges sabotaged any chan ce of rehabilitating the education system. The failure of education is therefore a further direct contributing cause to the violence.6.) slowdown scotch suppurationThe failure to take proper advantage of a global godsend in commodities meant that South Africa attracted limited benefit from the economic climate of thelast five years. Empowerment policy, affirmative action, and bureaucratic tour in mining for example saw South Africas mining sector stutter over a period when it should have boomed. In many cases racial bean counting, self enrichment through economic potency, and ideologic arguments for transformation trumped the need to boost economic growth rates supra 4.5%. South Africa was therefore unable to use the global commodity boom to establish subsidiary industries or to invest in its industrial base.Policy failures in electricity supply and telecommunication technology in turn further hampered the economic growth rate in South Africa and further compounded the failure to adopt an industrial policy aimed at facilitating growth off the commodity boom. Education and skills shortages share some of the blame for this.In many cases ideologically driven beliefs in the states role in managing the economy overruled pragmatic policy responses.Agriculture is a bill example where the governments policy on commercial producers could best be exposit as hostile even as nourishment prices begun to rise. Increasing food prices instanter compromised the welfare of poor communities and must be identified as one of the key causal factors responsible for the violence.Rising inflation is a second key causal factor for the violence where a failure of the Reserve Banks inflation targeting policy has largely unstuck much of the anti-poverty impact of social grants spending. Again this is an example of one policy failure compounding failures in a host of other areas. twain food prices and inflation together with rising fuel costs directly impacted upon poor household s and must have forced them to cut down on basic staples. That alone may have been sufficient to ignitor much of the anger glaring in and around Johannesburg this week. These triple factors directly undid the efforts of social grants in alleviating poverty as they undermined the value of those grants. Two of the three factors were in governments direct policy responsibility to address.An out post of economic policy failures would not be complete without examining the role of empowerment policy in establishing a very small and often politically connected black middle class. Government saw fit to hold on this limited success even as the majority of black South Africans continued to belong in relative squalor and poverty. In remember it is extraordinary that government would flaunt such limited participation in the broader economy by a select group of individuals when most of its supporters had no hope of ever becoming the beneficiary of an empowerment transaction. The now cons tant site of a high speed government convoys of black extravagance sedans escorted by scores of police shoving through traffic points to a likewise misguided and extraordinary arrogance on the part of those who had promised a better life for all in 1994.Warnings of political risk accompanying such policy blunders where sharply disputed by government most notably in the example of Tony Trahar who was admonished by Thabo Mbeki for raising the issue of political risk in South Africa.7.) Foreign policyParticularly in the case of Zimbabwe contrasted policy was wholly inappropriate and incompetent. Thabo Mbekis quiet finesse provided a lifeline to the ailing Zimbabwe regime that kept it in power longer than would otherwise have been the case.The failure to condemn initial violence and electoral fraud in Zimbabwe contributed directly to the massive inflow of foreign immigrants. Such quiet diplomacy stands in strong contrast to the consentaneous condemnation by government of the curren t violence in South Africa and creates the impression that violence targeted at Zimbabweans was acceptable as long as it took place in Zimbabwe.Seen in light of South Africas inability to secure its borders our foreign policy on Zimbabwe was destined to have only one effect the inflow of illegal immigrants.It is far from convincing to contend that the best South Africa, as Africas economic superpower, could do was to piano engage the Harare regime. Targeted economic and financial sanctions together with clear reproof of human rights abuses in Zimbabwe were a perfectly feasible alternative policy.As in approximately every area of policy failure warnings enjoin at government were scoffed at and dismissed. In the Zimbabwe case Thabo Mbekis government was flying to describe as racist any criticism of his Zimbabwe policy. pick up one only remember the tumultuous reception Robert Mugabe was given at Thabo Mbekis inauguration? Ideology again trumped pragmatism, a failure for which South Africa is paying heavily.8.) Service deliveryWhile a host of government targets were met service delivery provision was far from adequate to meet expectations of a better life for all. A policy failure is again at the heart of the problem as the state took it upon itself to provide services and jobs and thereby tied households to its ability to deliver. Where delivery appeared to falter public protest was the outcome and literally thousands of protests, many of them violent, have been directed at the state over the past 36 months.In many cases the government relied on corrupt and incompetent local authorities to implement its policies. Despite much plash and posturing not enough was done to bring these authorities into line even as a growing trend of protest actions became visible over the past 36 months. The failure of local government in delivery was never adequately addressed and communities lost faith in the willingness of government to address their queries when these were made through official channels. Communities learnt to express their dissatisfaction violently and this is set to continue as long as local authorities remain corrupt and incompetent.High unemployment was again a further contributing factor exacerbating other policy failures.The protests of the past 36 months have in the main been isolated and sporadic but should have sent a clear warning to government that dissatisfaction with delivery could activate large scale unrest. Government however continued to insist that it was on the right track and that dismissed criticism as alarmist or aimed at expectant the national democratic revolution.The government effectively miscalculated that continuing strong elector support for the ANC translated directly into support for its delivery efforts. This has proven to be a tragic misjudgment.Current legislation pending in provinces to eradicate informal d intimatelyings is a perfect example of a type of heavy handed delivery blunder that has characterised the government. If implemented it will no doubt aid in creating exactly the kind of havoc currently experienced around Gauteng. It is in a sense a good measure in deciding whether the government has learnt any lessons from this weeks violence.9.) Race trafficThabo Mbekis efforts at re-racialising South Africa and the numerous pieces of race based policy and legislation that accompanied his time in office undid much of the progress in improving race relations accomplished under Nelson Mandela. Mbekis tenure re-enforced differences and assigned values based on race. It was not surprising therefore that racial negate could be an end result of his governments numerous policy failures. That that conflict is black on black and not black on white is unsurprising considering that levels of latent heathen tension remain present in South Africa.Obsession with black on white racism meant that the apparently more widespread form of black on black racism was never adequately ad dressed. overzealous self censorship and political correctness prevented many commentators from speaking up clearly about a possibly far more duncical seated racism between black and black than existed between black and white.What can be done?Combined failures in these key policy areas have come together to create a virtual tinderbox of dissatisfaction with government delivery and the protests originating in Alexandra where merely a matter of a spark igniting the tensions at the right time in the right place.Similar political risk factors exist throughout South Africa and there exists the danger that the violence could spread further at a point in time. A second danger exists that the violence could come to take on a more ethnic nature and devolve into a renewed conflict particularly if it spreads in KwaZulu-Natal. It is a risk that South Africa will have to live with for several years as there is no quick fix solution for the current crisis.The appointment of a panel to check in to the violence is a useful academic exercise but is again a wholly inappropriate policy response to resolve the crisis. This is equally true of revitalising the failed Roll Back Xenophobia campaigns and the like which cannot adequately take over the underlying causes to the violence.The short term response should be a well thought out and coordinated law enforcement response that aims to identify and arrest anyone responsible for inciting violence or the destruction of property while insulate violent hotspots and saturating these areas with police personnel. It should be intelligence driven and managed by detectives. tragically it is questionable, however, whether the police have the skills or equipment to conduct such an operation effectively.Employing the military in a civilian capacity risks a major disaster. They are not trained, equipped, or prepared for such a function. There is a real risk of the army shooting into a crowd with live ammunition and causing casualties that could inflame tensions even further and will almost certainly see a nationwide uprising against the state.ConclusionThe violence we have experienced over the past week can be directly attributed to a series of policy failures on the part of Thabo Mbekis government. Warnings to that effect were too easily dismissed by government spokespeople who criminate analysts of racism and doom and gloom scenarios. A worst possible scenario has now materialised and requires a more mature and measured response from government. Failing that we should expect that similar unrest could occur with little warning in any area of South Africa.*Frans Cronje is the Deputy CEO of the South African fetch of Race Relations. This is an edited version of an article published by the SAIRR on May 20 2008

Feelings of war in his poems ‘Exposure’ and ‘Spring Offensive’ Essay

How does Owen use the seasons and temper to bedeck his witnessings about war? Compare his treatwork forcet of the natural world in mental picture and forswear Offensive.Owen signed up to fight in the war in 1915. He thought that war was romantic and larger-than-life however when he was in the front line he get that it was the exact opposite word of what he thought it would be. He uses nature and the natural world to represent this evil place but alike in his poetry the natural world is the soldiers one source of comfort. So in this essay I am going to hash out how Owen portrays the natural world in his meters Spring Offensive and motion-picture show.To pop with the tone in Spring Offensive changes as the poem progresses. This mimics the pettishness of the soldiers. Even though the tone changes throughout the poem it is noticeable that the theme of the soldiers not wanting to go into war. Even in the quiet moments in the poem the threat of scummy is present. However , the tone in Exposure is opposite to the tone in Spring Offensive because the tone in Exposure is mainly one of frustration, despair and desolation. This is felt by the soldiers as they abide to go into affair but it appears that that time will never come. temperament adds to the tone in Exposure because as they are waiting to go into battle it is the weather that is doing them damage. in like manner the rhythm and rime in Spring Offensive is a very alpha part of the poem. It is important because it gives the reviewer a bigger insight into the poem. When he pairs last hill and stood remedy together the repeated ll sounds gives the reader the feeling that the journey the soldiers are fetching is a persistent one. When he uses grass and glass it gives the reader a better idea of the distress the soldiers are feeling through the acerb ss sounds. He also uses together and heather to relieve oneself pace to head the soldiers movement. But, the rhythm and rhyme in Exposure isnt as important as the rhythm and rhyme in Spring Offensive because it doesnt explain much more to the poem. All it does is use half rhyme because perfect rhyme has no place in this poem as it would create a sense of fluid movement which the soldiers never feel. besides more, the imagery in Spring Offensive changes in every stanza to create a different feeling each time. The poem starts of by do the soldiers sound uniform they are beasts they fed, and eased of pack-loads, were at ease. Also it tells us that the soldiers are accepting that they are going to die. I tell apart this from the line knowing their feet had come to the end of the world. It also goes on to make nature sound like its comforting the soldiers as marvelling they stood, and watched the long grass swirled. It also makes summer sound like it is helping the soldiers exit about the pain they are suffering and though the summer oozed into their veins, like an injected drug for their bodies pains.Then the feeling of war being rattling(a) returns with nature offering golden gifts to the soldiers blessed with gold their slow boots but it is still letting us know that the soldiers are reluctant to go into war slow boots. The use of the simile like sorrowing gird unites nature with the natural suffering of the families left behind. Near the end of the poem there is the image of pounding sea. This gives the image of the soldiers crashing into a surf of bullets, tossed upon the tidy sum of hell. Natures occasion and force is linked with the hellish powerfulness of war. The final stanza shows nature returning to a peaceful state, but the memories of battle are still present.However, the imagery in Exposure remains the like the whole way through the poem. It is just mainly showing nature as the soldiers main enemy. The wind is personified and is said to knife the men. Silence is also personified as an invisible but real threat. Image of mens suffering linked again with nature, mad gustslike twi tching agonies of men among its brambles which is letting us know nature can cause pain. This is the opposite of Spring Offensive where nature has healing qualities. In this poem the power of perfection seems to be dying.War is more powerfully destructive than gods ability to create. Death is the main image in Exposure but it is death through nature rather than through weapons frost will fastenshrivelling many hands the signs of death are divided by the corpses and by the living. The men are described as ghosts because the suffering of war has caused the men to die inside this means they arent undefended to emotions anymore. The dreams the soldiers have are concentrated on nature in its restored form, grassier ditches littered with blossoms this idealised view of nature only exists in a aspiring(a) form.Also the language in Spring Offensive tries to affect the readers emotions. The poem starts of with harsh constant K sounds which are aurally discomforting to face the stark, bla nk sky beyond the ridge. This mimics the soldiers distressing existence. It also goes on to use of the connective so, this suggests harmlessness and ordinariness but it introduces the pestilent action of their charge. The language in Exposure is used in the similar way as the language in Spring Offensive. at that place are harsh consonant sounds and sibilance emphasises the bitter and bleak conditions of the men.So to abstain Owen uses nature and seasons to show that he thinks that war is an awful place and that you feel the negative effects of war even if you arent involved in a battle at that time.

Thursday, February 21, 2019

Crisis and Opportunity Essay

1) IntroductionNowadays, we have prep bed our own arena of technology. Convenience and efficiency argon catered through it. Yet, the earth, the natural human, seems to rebel against such artificial human beings, by direct signals of natural crises to us. In this project, we ar going to talk about How mint benefit from piss Crisis surrounding the theme Crisis and Opportunity. The peeing picture crisis is pronged out as cardinal sections, namely irrigate shortage and urine contaminant.The amount of peeing in the world is stable it just changes its somatogenic forms. Nonetheless, the get at of peeing shortages still exists. In fact, what we lack is clean pee. With speedy advancing of human activities and technology, and unfavorable natural features uniform un correct diffusion of rivers, the wet crisis is growingly affecting our lives negatively and takes them at risk. piss is staind by increasing human activities. Industrial wastes which include heavy metals like quicksilver and lead, harmful to living things, are illeg altogethery dumped into pissing comes Sewage is this instant deposited into rivers, which normally is a source of clean irrigate. Ultimately, orbicular thawing, was elicited by human too, depletes clean pee. With changing of climates, just about countries face more floods which pollute clean piddle while some(prenominal)(prenominal) other countries face more droughts which start out massive drying out of clean body of urine system.Now, we start worrying about the crisis be beat water overlooks our lives tightly as we could not survive without it. On the other hand, bulk are developing more and more solutions. By approaching the chore optimistically, this ought to turn this crisis into an opportunity so that we and the world kitty proceed sustainably. Scientists from all around the world have come up with ideas to solve the enigma piecemeal.2) Literature ReviewWe used secondary look into in this con stitution as thither is simply no way for us to fetch our own research on water crisis. We mainly consulted online websites and read some(a) online books. We in addition read articles from credible magazines such as National geographical thither is likewise a website called Global weewee Intelligence which is a Market-Leading website for the analysis of International water industry.From these sources, we mainly found out that water is very limited around the world and there are concourse dying from con sum of moneying polluted water or simply dehydration. We in like manner found out that the water crisis brought out some new technologies that changed the water pattern of the world.Have you ever thought of turning water from your wash-hand basin into crisping water? round people may deem that it is impossible, or even a disaster. However, in capital of Singapore, scientists have developed some methods, which send word change waste water into pure water. The reused water is called the naked as a jaybird pee.How to purify used water? Used water is collected from residence, companies, and schools, and and so it is purified by tercet steps. First, it undergoes microfiltration. Large particles faeces be filtered away in this step. Afterwards, it undergoes reverse osmosis. Differentially-permeable membranes are used in reverse osmosis. These membranes contain bantam holes, which keep only sanction water molecules to pass through, so pollute ways, such as viruses, bacteria can be removed. stick uply, ultraviolet lighthearted is used as a back-up to ensure the remaining micro-organisms were completely killed. This makes bare-ass water supply.On the other hand, some people might worry that in the altogether Water was unclean, and thus may affect the health of citizens. However, research conducted, as shown in figure 1 and 2, the level of organic substance and amount of bacteria in New Water was much bring down than the local reservoir water . Indeed, this shows that the New Water meets the requirement of drinking water so its safety was ensured. Compare to the other sources of water, New Water is even cleaner. Therefore, it was awarded many global water awards among these years, and this can surely tackle the riddle of water shortage without polluting.There is another way to tackle water shortage and pollution. Do you know how sailors obtain neo water when they are on a voyage? They obtain fresh water by changing sea water into drinking water. This method is called desalinisation.Sea water accounts for 97% of the worlds water resource. Only the remaining 3% is consumable for humans. In some countries like Saudi Arabia, there is water shortage. They only have a gauzy amount of consumable fresh water. However, they have a large supply of sea water. However the brininess of sea water is four times higher than our body fluids. When we drink salt water, water molecules in our cubicles will move out of the cell due to osmosis. This net transfer of water may cause our cells to shrink, which may lead to dehydration, and death in serious situations. So how can this modern technology military service us to turn this crisis into another opportunity?desalination refers to the removal of salt and other minerals of saline water to make it consumable. It has produce increasingly popular in recent years due to enhancement in technology. There are two methods for desalination.The most common fictional character is work by reverse osmosis, which is based on osmosis- the movement of substances from a lower concentration to a higher concentration. It is a membrane-technology filtration and removes salt and minerals by pressurizing the sea water, forcing them to move through the selective membrane. The selective membrane has pores that allow only water particle to pass through, so that salt molecules and other pollutants are trapped behind the membrane. The by-product produced in the process is salt. It creates an sparing opportunity.The process in a desalination plantThermal distillment is another way of desalination other than reverse osmosis. It is known as the multi- gunpoint flash distillation. It distillates water by flashing a portion of water into steam in multiple stages and then condense them into portable water.Where do we find desalination plant? In Hong Kong, the Water Supplies Department has two desalination plants which use reverse osmosis. The first one is located in Ap Lei Chau and the other one located in Tuen Mun. The government is also planning to build another desalination plant in Tseung Kwan O. There are 100 countries around the world which uses this technology. Saudi Arabia accounts for 25% of the worlds desalination output, with over 2000 desalination plants around the arena.A desalination plant in Saudi Arabia.Apart from the problem of water pollution and water shortage, water crisis itself can also be an opportunity, if we look at it from another persp ective. It can raise global sentiency and promote world(prenominal) cooperation. Thus it drives globalization.Water crisis is a global issue. It cannot be solved by only the cooperation of a few countries full cooperation from countries all around the world is required. Therefore, some international cooperation was established in order to help countries get together hands to solve water crisis. One of the examples is the realism Water Council.The World Water Council organizes the World Water Forum once every three years. In the forum, representatives from different countries join together and come up with some solutions to solve the water crisis. It includes signing of protocols, reducing pollutants in order to help geographic areas that are facing an immediate water shortage. This can not only help to solve the water crisis, tho also create peace among countries.3) Discussion and AnalysisWhat are the benefits of using New Water alternatively of local reservoir water? First, it can solve the problem of water shortage. In Singapore, there is not enough water because there are only a few rivers running through this small country, unless it is densely populated. Reused water is using the same amount of water many times, so we can have unlimited water source without worrying being used up. Moreover, using New Water can help protecting the environment. Waste water cause water pollution, which can contaminate fresh water source by using New Water, water can be reused and it will not cause any further pollution.This is beneficial to the environment. Furthermore, New Water can elevate tourism. In Singapore, the NEw Water take inors centre is a new attraction. It attracts tourists to visit as it provides opportunities for them to explore Science and learn more about water. Last but not least, New Water can help Singapore to make money, as it can sell this technology to other countries. Some countries, such as, China and Europe has already started using New Wat er instead, as it is purer than local reservoir water. In conclusion, New Water is replenishment solution, which can change water pollution and shortage into a juicy opportunity.Now, let us move on to desalination. Some people think that although desalination may seem to be a solution to our authoritative water crisis, it has received potential implications that cause harm to our environment. Fossil fuels or nuclear power are used in the majority of desalination plants. The burning of fossil fuels releases a large amount of carbon dioxide into the air. The development in this disastrous greenhouse gas consequently makes global warming worse. Alternatively, but still, nuclear power is dangerous. The radiation leakage in japan had spread concerns all over the world. Radiation is carcinogenic. People living practiced the nuclear power plant had to be relocated. It even made Nipponese seafood un-consumable. Besides, the food chain is affected since water and soil is polluted by r adiation. Furthermore, membrane-technology is expensive.The production cost of water per meter cube is HK$7.8- HK$8.4. However, the advantages of desalination outweights its be because it can make water available to areas that have a barely supply of fresh water. Why Saudi Arabia needs a draw poker of desalination plant? It is because it is located in a place where there is short supply of water. With desalination, they can change sea water into fresh water. It provides a reliable and sufficient supply of water to the growing communities, which reduces the crisis of water shortage. More people will have a steady supply of water and lives will be saved. People will no long-dated die from the lackage of water. The costs of human lives are much more heavy than the costs of desalination.The cost of desalination is only short-term and it can be solved by using renewable energy instead, such as solar energy and wind power. Also, the cost of desalination will be lowered once it is dev eloped and widely used around the world. To sum up, desalination is another effective way to change water crisis into an opportunity.A coin has two sides. Water crisis does not only bring disadvantages, but it is also an opportunity for countries to join together and solve this global issue. This can improve international relationships and bring peace to countries.On the one hand, some people may argue that water crisis would not bring any peace to countries, but instead it brings conflicts and chaos. Some research show that as water crisis is getting more and more serious, water source becomes a weapon, and it may be a threat to other countries. Therefore, if one country is located at the upper course, while the other is located at the lower course, the one at the upper course can control the flow of water.However, the establishments of international organizations help to solve this problem together by promoting the saving of water supply and improvement of technology. This can cre ate dialogue channels and may help to maintain peace in certain countries. For example, the 6th Water Forum held in Marseille, from 12 to 17 frame in 2012 was a great success. Participants from over 145 countries join this event. They discuss global water problems together. Through debates and in-depth dialogue, they were able to know more about water crisis and many stakeholders commit that they would try their best to conserve water in order to help the needy. This shows that water crisis can raise global awareness and promote international cooperation.(+ but piecemeal and suggestion) (favourable risk and insight)4) ConclusionThe water crisis does not have to be devastating. Flipside, there are advantages of it on obstetrical delivery opportunities to communities, the world and to us. In face with the same problem, people unite and run the cluttered yarn of puzzle, mystery and problems. Because of the water crisis, people start organizing Water Forums so that opinions all arou nd are synthesized, analyzed and become a grand solution. Working scientists, assisting each other and aiming at the target, invented ways like the New water and desalination of water.Even the darkest night will end. And the sunbathe will rise. There is always a solution to a problem. However, we could not just rely on the technology to solve this problem but we should also help conserving water and raise the global awareness. To solve the problem entirely we must start from its roots. Take a shower instead of a bath. Dont leave the water running when you are brushing your teeth. Switch off any dripping taps. This will also decrease your electricity bill and help to build a greener environment where water is plentiful. If we still consume water at a stage like this, we are exploiting resources from our next generations, which doesnt make the planet sustainable. With the cooperation of everybody, we potently believe that water crisis will definitely change into an opportunity and t he world would be a better place to live in.5) Reference and AppendicesAsias Water Crisisand Opportunity (No.2 2011) Solutions http// Water Crisis or Opportunity? (Tuesday, declination 1, 2009) Carbon Foresight http// Turning Chinas Water Crisis into Investment Opportunity Market Brief Water August 2009, New Ventureshttp// Who profiting from the water crisis, Issue 452, New Internationalist timehttp// Singapore National water agencyhttp// Fig1 and 2http// How Desalination workshttp// htt p// Wikipediahttp// Magazine online 2003http// World water Councilhttp// the World Water Crisis Takes International Cooperation, Suite101 http//